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Dangers of High Fructose Corn Syrup

Consumption of sugar-sweetened products has increased worldwide, changing dietary habits from one period to the other. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a food sweetener and is one type of food sweetener that individuals put in their bodies every single day. HFCS is made from processed corn starch which contains linked sugars. Individuals mainly prefer it because it is sweeter and cheaper and is quickly absorbed in the body. Some examples of this sweetener are found in salad dressing, candy, frozen junk food, and soda. It is made up of two types, namely HFCS-42 and HFCS-55. There have been a lot of discussions concerning different types of sweeteners regarding their metabolism and health. Some past researchers concluded that HFCS and other sweeteners are associated with metabolic syndrome, a high risk of heart disease, and increased muscle tissue adiposity caused by accumulated fats. A portion of researchers disagrees with these results. For example, some state the advantage of HFCS in lactating women, and for this reason, there have been clinical tries to solve the ambiguity of the controversy concerning sweeteners. Despite all these controversies, HFCS has dangers that it causes in the body. Problems of cardiometabolic disorders such as obesity, liver disease, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, cancer, and insulin resistance are both contributed by HFCS. The research paper aims to explain the dangers associated with the consumption of HFCS.

HFCS contributes to the problem of obesity. In a study by Lakkis & Weir (2018), mice gained weight and had a higher percentage of liver fat after drinking water with 30% HFCS for a long time. Increased insulin resistance, increased lipolysis, and sugar utilization problems resulted from the growth of visceral fat. The results indicated a significant relationship between metabolic disorders and microbiota, such as obesity. Christensenellaceae‘s presence in the human colon is also affected, and it results or is related to the onset of collateral cancer. Metabolic diseases are linked to dietary patterns, and studies show that consuming a high dose of HFCS over time causes a drop in Christensenellaceae, leading to obesity in mice, which is similar to what happens in humans. Obesity has consequences such as hypertension coronary heart disease, which can lead to type 2 diabetes and can lead to death. Therefore, individuals should avoid the consumption of HFCS to counter such consequences.

Kidney failure resulting from hyperuricemia is contributed by the presence of HFCS in the body. The leading cause of hyperuricemia is taking more of sugary drinks such as those containing HFCS. Hyperuricemia progresses to kidney disease due to uric acid, which increases oxidative stress and leads to inflation (Chang et al., 2021). Excessive use of HFCS leads to an imbalance between serum uric acid and uric acid metabolism, resulting in other diseases such as cardiovascular disease and gout. A study by Chang et al. (2021) indicates that the group treated with HFCS had a higher volume of urine than the control group. Such indicates that HFCS poses a danger when it is consumed in excess. Diseases such as kidney failure and cardiovascular diseases are costly, and individuals should avoid such sugary foods to maintain their body health. Additionally, excessive drinking is linked to diabetes. This is because the high level of HFCS leads to insulin resistance, a condition that causes type 2 diabetes.

It is important to note that the use of HFCS contributes to asthma in adults. This sweetener has a high level of fructose. The underlying fructose malabsorption contributes to the formation of the bind receptors such as pro-inflammatory glycation end products, which are the mediators of asthma DeChristopher & Tucker (2018). Therefore, individuals should avoid consuming these products to avoid the effects associated with asthma. Asthma causes breathing difficulties, cause a whistling sound, shortness of breath, and triggers coughing. Additionally, the disease contributes to problems in daily activities, which may lead to life-threatening asthma attacks on adults. As explained, one should avoid excess use of HFCS to counter the effect of asthma. The reduction of HFCS consumption may not be the only measure to address the risk of asthma, but individuals should consider reducing the consumption of sugary beverages. In conclusion, individuals should consume high fructose syrup in moderation as a part of a balanced and healthy diet.

Excessive use of food or drinks made of HFCS results in testicular damage and testis physiopathology in the male reproductive system. Aslankoc & Ozmen’s (2019) study indicated that testicular biopsy and sperm count in the HFCS group decreased significantly. Additionally, the histopathology evaluation indicated small changes in Oedema and hyperemia in the HFCS group. Testis physiopathology twists the spermatic cord, which eliminates the blood flow in the testicle. Individuals should know that whenever they are taking excess of HFCS and other sugary drinks and foods, they predict their future of threatening their fertility. Testicular torsion causes swelling and sudden pains, and when the testicle is dead, the only option is its removal. Therefore, individuals should avoid consuming too many foods and drinks made of HFCS and other sugary foods and drinks. Additionally, HFCS soft drink consumption raises the resistance in the kidneys during rest. The responsiveness of kidneys during sympathetic stressors leads to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and kidney failure (Cha Xu & Yu 2022)


Sweeteners such as HFCS forms a more significant part of our daily consumption. Some individuals cannot live without sweeteners, but they should take them at a given limit. The more one consumes these drinks and foods, the higher the risk of increasing the body weight. The more dangers associated with HFCS in the human body include asthma disease, testicular damage, hyperuricemia which results in kidney failure, and the problem of obesity. Individuals with such diseases require medical checkups, which might be costly. It is therefore essential that individuals should avoid excessive consumption of HFCS.


Aslankoc, R., & Ozmen, O. (2019). The effects of high-fructose corn syrup consumption on testis physiopathology—The ameliorative role of melatonin

Chang et al., 2021. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Hyperuricemic Effects of Chrysin on a High Fructose Corn Syrup-Induced Hyperuricemia Rat Model via the Amelioration of Urate Transporters and Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling Pathway. Antioxidants10, 564

Lakkis, J. I., & Weir, M. R. (2018). Obesity and kidney disease. Progress in cardiovascular diseases61(2), 157-167.

Wang et al., (2022) Effects of high fructose corn syrup on intestinal microbiota structure and obesity in mice. Science of Food

Xu, C., & Yu, J. (2022). Pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension development induced by fructose consumption. Food & Function.


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