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Christian Thought and Practice

Empirical Science has significantly challenged traditional religious ideologies, primarily due to philosophical thoughts promoting critical thinking and questioning existing knowledge. However, disputes between religion and Science were periodically solved when societies realized that there was a need for the separation between state and Church. According to Tenopir et al. (2020), empirical studies continue to challenge traditional christian beliefs, thereby generating conflicts between religion and Science. For instance, Christianity’s core belief is that a deity is responsible for creation. However, with the discovery of the Theory of Evolution by Charles Darwin, there have been questions regarding the basis of Christina’s beliefs. Considering these issues brings into perspective the perception of billions of Christians across the globe that have been exposed to Science but still comply with the requirements of the doctrine. There is a need to consider the existing dialogue between Christianity and Science and their various outcomes and how they affect believers.

Complementary Dialogue

One of the reasons Christians conform to scientific and religious thoughts is that there are areas where they complement. Normative ethics offers a critical area where Science the religion complement. The need for societies to be stable has led to the invention of guiding principles that ensure that human beings behave in a manner that promotes order. McGrath (1999) explains that ethical issues have remained stable even with the advent and popularization of scientific methods of verifying the truth. Most of the ethical principles adopted in societies have been borrowed from religion. For instance, Christianity warns against the discrimination of persons based on their race, gender, and other cultural attributes. Frigo et al. (2021) explain that one of the teachings of Christianity is the equality of all persons. Equality has been crucial in ensuring order in the modern workplace characterized by cultural diversity. The same is complemented by scientific studies that seek to create an optimal environment for the maximum productivity of workers. Therefore, Christianity and Science complement in promoting normative ethics geared towards creating social order. Normative ethics has ensured that people can coexist with one another in society. Living together has been especially crucial in this age of globalization, where diversity is the order of the day.

The complementary dialogue between Christianity and Science is primarily based on shared interests. Human beings value stability, and people must live together harmoniously. The foundation of Science is empirical studies. Tenopir et al. (2020) point out that current concepts in carrying out studies emphasize the need to remain ethical, especially when the subjects are human beings. For instance, ensuring that the researcher seeks consent from the subjects before carrying out studies is crucial. Consent ensures that the researcher does not engage in any practices that violate the subjects’ rights. In addition, some studies incorporate. Numerous ethical issues characterize the research niche to ensure that the results are not disputed (Tenopir et al., 2020). One must appreciate that some of the ethical principles used in scientific studies are borrowed from Christianity. Therefore, some of the tangents of interaction between Christianity and Science demonstrate that the two ideologies depend on each other. The ethical perspective provides an unlikely chance where Science and Christianity relate. There is a significant percentage of the global population that is Christian. In addition, the constitution of most countries, including the United States, have roots in Christianity. Complementarity is an essential concept for society because it ensures that things run smoothly.

Unrelated Dialogue

The concept of the separation of Church and state has been successful due to an unrelated dialogue between the two. Whereas Science is concentrated on understanding the world and coming up with solutions to challenges, Christianity addresses the spiritual well-being of followers. Silva et al. (2020) explain that teaching religion and Science is possible because they follow different pedagogical paths. Whereas there are areas where science and religion conflict, they have generally coexisted in society peacefully due to the different paths they take in people’s lives. Dialogues generate arguments, especially when they are on the same trajectory.

However, the paths taken by Science and Christianity are different, and it is always possible to find scientists that are believers. Unrelated dialogue has ensured that Science and Christianity can exist in the smallest spaces. Christianity and Science have existed side by side for centuries. Various events have caused significant conflicts between the two. However, the fact that the two fields diverge when it comes to dialogues has been crucial in ensuring that neither of the parties intrudes on the business of the other. Religion and Science address different needs in human beings. For holistic development, there is a need for man to have a spiritual perspective. Christianity fulfills the spiritual needs of people, whereas Science is primarily concerned with solving mysteries of the world. Having an unrelated dialogue has prevented the two antagonistic parties from interfering with each other. An understanding of dialogues that emerge between the two protects the integrity of both Christianity and Science. Science opposes Christian beliefs because they are not based on empirical studies. However, understanding the critical role of Science and religion in society has ensured peace.

Conflicting Dialogue

Science and Christianity have traditionally existed from different perspectives. Science is as old as religion but otherwise older than Christianity. The current world is full of ideologies, most of which have a basis in the spiritual beliefs of populations. The conflicting dialogue between Science and Christianity is evident on emerging issues such as sexuality and sexual identity. According to Rekker (2021), the identity problem in the current social set-up is crucial to the existing conflicts between Church and Science. For instance, the concept of Christianity concerning gender issues is limited to the binary definition of male and female. However, Science takes a different perspective, especially regarding identity. Some persons identify as LGBTQ (Lesbians, gays, bi-sexuals, transgender, and queer) in contemporary society. Christian beliefs are conservative and do not condone such issues. As a result, there have been debates in the populace concerning gender issues. Christians believe in creation and the fact that it is God that assigned people their respective genders. Nevertheless, when looking at realities and the findings of Science, biological factors do not determine the gender of a person. Rekker (2021) explains that it is imperative to consider the plight of minorities when considering equality in society.

Christianity is based on conservative doctrines based on writings of the Bible. Rekker (2021) observes that the Bible explicitly criminalizes the union between persons of the same sex. However, according to Science, the argument is that people can get attracted to people of the same sex. The conflicting dialogue between Christianity and Science is more apparent on the issue of sexual identity and sexuality. The discrimination of minority groups in the contemporary world has taken a significant turn as governments lax their laws to accommodate diversity. However, Christian doctrines have become threatened, and there have been calls for Churches to adjust their laws to accommodate the emerging diversity in the contemporary world. There is a need to consider the positive side of the conflicting dialogue, especially concerning the problem of gender identity and sexuality. According to Rekker (2021), such discussions have led to the emergence of social issues affecting modern society. In addition, Science has claims that have been supported by empirical studies on the fact that there is no significant correlation between biological sex and the perceived gender of individuals. Considering these issues brings into perspective the existing conflicts between Christianity and Science arguments.

Revisionist Dialogue

There have been attempts to reconcile Christians’ and scientists’ perceptions. Silva et al. (2020) provide an example of the Church of Scientology with different doctrines from Christianity. There is a need to understand that the mere use of the word Church is borrowed from Christians. Therefore, there are aspects of reconciliation between the Church and Science. The revisionist dialogue is crucial, especially considering recent allegations that have affected dominating Christian Churches such as Catholic and Anglican. For instance, Silva et al. (2020) point us that both churches have had cases of a gay relationships between the clergy and young boys. Such realities have prompted the Church to take a soft stance on contentious issues such as same-sex marriages. The revisionist dialogue is based on the concept of consensus and accepting the changes taking place in society.

The dialogue is far from over because it is merely beginning. The pressure has been more on the Church to ensure that it revises its hard stance on several issues to accommodate societal changes. Silva et al. (2020) outline that the gender identity issue has prompted the Church to act to remain socially relevant. Revision of concepts is crucial in the contemporary world especially concerning Christianity, which takes a hard stance on issues such as sexuality and gender identity. The revisionist treatise brings into perspective various issues, such as the need for religion to align with scientific findings while at the same time keeping the necessary doctrines. However, this is not always possible, especially among conservatives that are hard-lined on the scriptures. If any changes are to be made, they have to consider the sentiments of the clergy and followers and the findings of Science.


The social challenges experienced in the contemporary world require the input of both Science and Christianity. Christianity has played a role in Science, especially when looking at early discoveries. There are areas where the two concepts complement, especially concerning normative ethics. Christianity and Science agree on the value of human life and the need to uphold order in society. However, there are also instances where the two adopt different unrelated paths. For instance, there are Christians in the society who are also scientists. However, there are situations where Christianity and Science conflict, especially on issues about gender identity. Revisionist dialogues attempt to reconcile both approaches. Although challenging, it is necessary to consider these pertinent dialogues and ensure they have the best outcomes for society.


Frigo, G., Marthaler, F., Albers, A., Ott, S., & Hillerbrand, R. (2021). Training responsible engineers. Phronesis and the role of virtues in teaching engineering ethics. Australasian Journal of Engineering Education. Retrieved from

McGrath, A. (1999). Science & Religion. Blackwell Publishing.

Rekker, R. (2021). The nature and Origins of political polarization over Science. Public Understanding of Science, 30(4), 352–368. Retrieved from

Silva, I., Rappleye, J., & You, Y. (2020). Beyond the western horizon in education research: Toward a deeper dialogue about our interdependent Future. Review of Education, 3(1), 3–19.

Tenopir, C., Rice, N. M., Allard, S., Baird, L., Borycz, J., Christian, L., . . . Sandusky, R. J. (2020). Data sharing, management, use, and reuse: Practices and perceptions of scientists worldwide. Plos One. Retrieved from


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