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Children Depression During COVID-19


Following the devastating effects experienced due to COVID-19, mental health and welfare among our school children have become a priority. The world fought many difficulties of the disease, but the problem was more complicated than it might seem – it was not only about people’s health. In this context, protracted instances of socialization deprivation, distance education, as well as apprehensions caused severe damage to children’s mental health, requiring intervention and assistance. For example, UNESCO’s COVID-19 Global School and University Closures Monitoring report indicates that as of June 2021, 198,613 483 children were affected by total or partial closures globally. When COVID-19 started entering its third wave in Canada, children and adolescents were also at risk of school closure for a second time (Vaillancourt et al., 2021). Statistics Canada (2021) noted that about 5.7 million learners aged thirteen years and below have been exposed to school closures in Canada. Abramson (2022) reports that the pandemic adversely affected children’s mental health.

The deep awareness that the mental health of our school children is not trivial drives this capstone project. This paper argues that due to the unprecedented challenges of COVID-10, screening school-aged kids for depression is imperative. We can, therefore, preemptively deal with the hidden nature of depression’s effect on their general health and performance at school. Recent studies demonstrate the deep awareness that society should pay attention to students’ mental health (Barch et al., 2019). The screening for depression will be a crucial component of our child safety and wellness policy within the school setting. From the onset, accessibility is central to ensure that each learner, irrespective of their conditions, takes advantage of this vital undertaking.

There will be screening sessions, which will be selectively held in different areas of the school space. Such spaces can also be made up of private counseling offices established in order to maintain a discreet, relaxed atmosphere for conversations. The other measure will see these screenings being conducted in certain sections within the school compounds to increase access and convenience. With regard to students involved in distant or remote learning, secure online platforms will be utilized to make mental health support universal and extendable across physical limits. Validated and age-appropriate instruments adapted to the particular requirements and development levels will be used in the screening process for every age group. These tools were chosen after thorough investigation and professional input. Mental health specialists will perform these exams, including counselors, psychologists, and experienced staff. Their expertise and sensitivity will provide a relevant assessment atmosphere for pupils.

The screening intervals will be carefully planned so as to take cognizance of changing needs among students, hence a proactive and holistic approach. Risks differ for children of different ages, and they can have growth problems. Consequently, screening frequency will be specific for every age group and scheduled during the school term. Adopting this customized strategy, however, caters to providing time-bound and fit services to the learners. However, at the same time, it appreciates the age peculiarity and possible change in the mental health condition. This initiative sets out what, where, when, and how to support youth mental health in school by providing a firm yet practical guide. It is focused attention on ensuring that our students have good mental health by making their emotional wellness valuable. The strategy aims to improve their general welfare and create hope for a brighter world and resilient generations by focusing on their mental health, which can be considered important for academic excellence.

Hence, amid the myriad of problems of today’s society, this capstone project becomes an inspirational call for protecting the mental health of our school kids. On this basis, in line with the enlightening viewpoint of Allgaier et al. (2014), it acts as a guiding light that cries out for a change—the call for improvement in the well-being and happiness of our early generation. By doing so, we conserve their present life force to prepare them for a mentally tough generation, ready for school triumphs and hardened against life’s hardships.

However, identifying mental health disorders in children is challenging; thus, the approach should be comprehensive. This requires comprehensive screening procedures that are firmly established in schools. Psychiatrists will regularly assess the students for emotional disturbances and psychological challenges. This technique tries to identify student issues and provide personalized programs. Additionally, it emphasizes the need to create a caring and compassionate school culture. It focuses on developing the emotional intelligence of educators, enabling them to identify symptoms of stress and to cope with this situation adequately. Conducting workshops, seminars, and professional development programs will equip teachers with the skills to establish supportive and caring environments where students feel appreciated and understood. For this reason, it is necessary to encourage mutual trust between teachers and students to form a positive emotional climate promoting psychological health (Bernard, 2018).

Moreover, the project proposes integrating such approaches into teaching materials in order to foster emotional literacy and strengthen resilience. This entails integrating mindfulness activities, emotional intelligence programs for teachers and students, as well as age-specific psychological education in accordance with grades. Thus, by normalizing the conversations about mental health and emotional well-being, people will be made to understand that it is okay to seek help whenever there is a problem. This, in turn, will create a positive culture where individuals will have no fear but will easily express themselves and get support.

This task would also be facilitated by technology. The project will offer stress, anxiety, and emotional problem management resources accessible on digital platforms and apps developed purely for mental health promotion among children. The resources are meant to include captivating activities, guiding meditations, and interactive tools that can be used to strengthen emotional regulation and coping abilities. Another essential part of this initiative is working with parents or guardians. Communication channels will be created frequently to make families understand and support the emotional requirements of their children. Parents will be offered workshops and seminars aimed at teaching them how to recognize signs of distress in children and what they can do at home or in partnership with the school to ensure that the child develops normally under healthy conditions.

The lack of routine screening of depression among children is another obstacle to exploring all aspects of mental health problem that occurs among this population. There are currently many institutional, logistic, and financial obstacles that prevent complete depression screening in schools. As a result, the cases of depression among the children never get monitored, thus hiding the real magnitude of the problem. The fact that there is no widespread screening limits our understanding of the prevalence and gravity of depression among students and prevents the implementation of adequate response systems and support measures in time.

The consequences of untreated depression in children are dire, as they affect them for the rest of their lives. For instance, studies like those of Barch et al. (2019) and Allgaier et al. (2014) reveal extensive impacts of untreated depression. The implications of unidentified and unaddressed depression on emotional health, cognitive capacity, and interaction with people are revealed. Depression in children often comes with problems regarding attentional control, memory, and self-regulation of emotions that can affect their scholarly activities and general wellness. Childhood depression is also persistent and may become a risk factor for long-term mental problems that increase vulnerability to anxiety, substance use disorder, and psychiatric disorders.

Despite the apparent imperative of regular depression screenings across the nation, there remain some crucial challenges in practice. There is inadequate allocation of resources to mental health services with insufficient screening exercises. Mental health campaigns rarely receive sufficient funding as there are many urgent matters and insufficient funds. Some opposing opinions could challenge regular screenings based on issues related to unreliable screen tools, children, as well as family stigma, or even invasion of private life. Apart from that, logistic challenges, non-standardized procedures, and the need for massive training for teachers and other workers on conducting these screening exercises may serve as obstacles if the same are adopted in their entirety.

However, there are still different views on this issue. However, it is a must to do systematic and regular screening of depression in schools. Therefore, lobbying for more money and policy backing on mental health, especially in education, should be supported. Such is the case where comprehensive screenings coupled with targeted intervention initiatives can significantly curb the dangerous effects of undiagnosed depression, as this would, in turn, help produce a healthy and resilient generation for tomorrow.


The capstone project, informed by Allgaier et al.’s (2014) insights, shall consider different ways of dealing with this issue: education programs, appropriate screenings, parental support, and the need for insurance coverage. By adopting this holistic approach, the problem of depression amongst students will be addressed, and there will be the provision of lasting solutions for the student’s overall success in life. These difficulties show that detection and intervention at an early stage will develop resilience/success in school children. Moreover, in addition to identifying the issue, this final paper will present solutions and recommendations for improving the management of children’s health in schools, at home, and while under the care of medical practitioners.

However, there is a need to elaborate on the systematic screening approaches for depression, including the reasons why they are important. Systematic screening helps identify children who may be suffering symptoms of depression by providing structure to such activity, thus minimizing the chances of leaving out anyone. Using this method, people already suffering from depression are detected, as well as those at their first steps on that path. Early detection is similar to finding a potential storm that, if left unchecked, may turn into a hurricane to provide targeted and timely interventions that could positively affect outcomes.

Although academic achievement represents an important part of a child’s life, several aspects of their well-being well-being well-being go beyond the classroom. Depression may affect different domains of a child’s development, including his/her ability to develop deep interpersonal relationships and his/her general health. As such, any screening and intervention program should be holistic in its outlook to incorporate emotional, social, and physical health aspects. In this sense, the intervention will take place employing a multiple strategy. Early detection mechanisms like periodic mental health screenings will help in identifying children who are either at risk of suffering from depression or are depressed. A tiered support system shall also be provided by the school counselors, psychologists, and teachers in collaboration with the family members.

In addition, it is important to engage local healthcare providers as well as mental health organizations to cater to integrated childcare, which includes therapy and medication. Similarly, improving physical health components such as exercise, nutrition, and sleep will also help promote mental wellness. In this regard, we understand that the mental health of a child goes hand in hand with many complexities and effects surrounding it. Interrelatedness stresses the significance of working together to build an environment favorable for the child’s development. While pushing for systematic depression screening in schools, it is important to make sure that similar programs are non-discriminatory and affordable to every student. It is important to have screening initiatives that will be implemented across different socioeconomic backgrounds, as mental disorders, especially in students, are not selective. We point out that it is necessary to address socioeconomic inequality, including equitable provision of depression screening programs, among other things.

These programs should also be culturally sensitive and inclusive. Screening and intervention strategies towards students must start with recognizing different backgrounds and experiences in students. Inclusiveness makes sure that no child fears being looked down upon as he/she seeks assistance with his/her mental health problems. Programs that accept cultural diversity are better positioned to address various communities’ needs, practices, and beliefs; such an atmosphere can make children feel understood and supported. Adopting this approach improves the availability and trustworthiness of mental health services, forming a basis whereby culturally sensitive and appropriate intervention measures can be advanced and implemented.

The extended argument highlights culturally sensitive strategies employed in managing childhood depression that recognize the specific needs of children belonging to different races. A capstone project that sets out on a quest to deal with the sensitive problem of depression among school pupils in the context of the COVID times. We intend to offer a complete interpretation of the importance of systemic depression screening and early intervention methods. In this case, we care for children’s emotions and readiness for studies.

The project argues for a comprehensive approach beyond the academics and social and emotional aspects of child mental health. It also underscores the significance of equal opportunity and treatment for each child with a claim on our attention and care. In this chapter, we shall deal with the practical issues related to depression screening in schools, such as symptoms of depression, participation of students’ parents and teachers, and choice of appropriate measures of assessment. Moreover, our focus will be on special issues surrounding homeschooling, which include mental issues. Parents who teach at home should be made accessible to screening tools as well as ways of spotting symptoms of depression within the kids.

They include ways of addressing the scarcity of mental health professionals in specific geographical locations. The gap may be bridged through community-based programs, telehealth, or collaborating with other district health care providers next door. The goal is to establish an overarching strategy that can encompass different scenarios and lead to a day when everyone in traditional and home school can achieve emotionally and academically and cope with problems despite them.

Literature Review

There are numerous notable research findings on child depression presented in this article. In a ten-year longitudinal journey, Barch et al. (2019) revealed that in early life, the depressive state is linked with memory and brain development. Alsaad and Nasser (2019) played the role of master storytellers, combining various sources into an all-encompassing narrative of childhood depression. Mills et al.’s (2016) canvas mixed method demonstrated the rates and ongoing effects of childhood parental mental health. Hawrilenko et al. (2021) depicted differences in childhood depression trajectories and highlighted the requirement of equal justice and fair access to mental healthcare services. Allgaier et al., 2014 proposed systematic screening of depression in schools, and Bignardi et al., 2021 showed the emotional strains caused by the COVID-19 pandemic for children, stressing timely intervention.[ In 2020, Marques de Miranda and others produced a lively picture of how the pandemic was affecting children’s mental health. These studies paint a picture that helps unravel the various aspects of childhood depression and advocates for individualized intervention strategies and equal resource distribution.

Barch et al. (2019) conducted an extensive longitudinal observational design focusing on the complex links between child depressive disorder, emotion regulation, episodic memory, and hippocampal development in the beginning. These include advanced research methods such as sophisticated tools to solve and analyze the complex relationships among these variables. The researchers went on an expedition that involved neuropsychological tests, observational studies, and sophisticated brain scanning techniques. The use of structured interviews and standardized assessment was vital in depicting the holistic perspective of early childhood depression, with effects on emotional regulation, memory, hippocampus,

It is probable that within this study’s framework, the statistical analysis was extensive, incorporating regression models and other complex techniques to reveal and establish strong links between early-life depression, emotional regulation, and hippocampal development. This analytic approach is aimed at discerning complex interrelationships among cognitive or neurobiology domains and their potential co-or causal explanations for early childhood depression. In their article, Barch et al. (2019) revealed essential links between early childhood depression, emotional regulation, and hippocampus development. The revelations suggested a considerable relation between early childhood depression and possible changes in memory procedures as well as brain structure, particularly the hippocampus. Therefore, this study was able to establish possible connections linking early childhood depression with memory and emotional control. It was implied that such observable changes may be linked to the psychological experience of depression in early life, especially in the area as essential as the hippocampus.

In addition, Alsaad & Nasser’s (2019) study can be referred to as a crucial landmark in communication about pediatric depression that functions not as an authentic research initiative but rather as a massive review and accumulation of established concepts. This scholarly work uses a large number of empirical studies, clinical observations, and theoretical frameworks to construct a cohesive reference on childhood depression. This study will be based on rich academic data, experience from the clinics, as well as empirical studies with the aim of presenting reliable information about children’s depression. It provides a profound understanding of several aspects associated with diagnosis, management, possible treatments, and subtle nuances of this complication among youngsters. Synthesized existing literature is another important resource that provides invaluable information pertinent to practitioners, educators, researchers, and mental health professionals working in pediatric mental health. It serves as an encyclopedia containing all the different perspectives on childhood depression. As a whole, this compilation provides a broader picture that reflects all points of view about childhood depression.

This work describes in detail the clinical aspect of childhood depression and goes further to consider the implications in different spheres. Synthesizing empirical findings from multiple studies, it shows various aspects of childhood depression, including its effect on different developmental trajectories. Similarly, the Alsaad & Nasser (2019) article links theory and practice in academic research. The manual collates best practices and points of view on the diagnosis and treatment of child depression, providing direction toward evidence-based interventions.

Mills et al.’s (2016) work provide another major contribution toward understanding depression during early childhood, employing a mixed methods approach that combines quantitative and qualitative methods. Therefore, this method enabled an in-depth investigation of the multifaceted nature of children’s depression, considering not only statistical frequency but also its influence on personal life course. This study employed quantitative research methodologies, using surveys and standardized assessment tests administered to children. The tools were instrumental in statistical analysis because they assisted in detecting the occurrence frequency of the symptoms of depression among the sampled population. The findings of this study assisted in the quantification of the scope and prevalence of childhood depression.

Accordingly, qualitative tools such as in-depth interviews and case studies complement quantitative data. They made this research more credible as they explained how child depression impacts their interaction with other people and also their school work and general psychology state. Through these personal narratives and case studies, readers were able to understand what it feels like for a child living in depression, more than just statistics and figures. It turned out that these people always had more stress in their lives than those who were not exposed to such problems. Such discovery marked the continued effect of children’s stress due to parents’ psychiatric complications. Remarkably, extra emotional stress in childhood was followed by mental health problems, which were at the normal level above a baseline increase concerning entering into other phases of life.

The study also reiterated the need to acknowledge variations of childhood adversity arising from parental psychological disturbances. This emphasizes that childhood is quite complicated and how a person’s mental state can be affected during one’s entire life by these experiences. It is essential to comprehend various types of childhood adversities, especially those that are correlated with parental mental problems, in order to implement specific interventions and supportive measures. The impact of such research is wide, going beyond determining the just prevalences. This is a wake-up call regarding the need to understand how childhood experiences, especially parental mental illness, affect individuals’ mental health in later life. This emphasizes the need for holistic, ongoing interventions targeting both childhood depression and the child abuse factors of adverse childhood experiences.

Moreover, Hawrilenko et al. (2021) explored the multifaceted view of childhood depression, looking into different factors contributing to stable or changing patterns of depressive symptomatology across time. Building on longitudinal observations and applying growth mixture modeling, this study distinguished trajectories of pre-adolescent depression symptoms, providing insight into how these symptoms develop throughout childhood. Researchers used growth mixture modeling with structured residuals to distinguish different trajectories of childhood depression symptoms. The complex and scientific analytic approach helped put various subgroups with particular signs of depression in boxes. Utilizing latent class analysis, the study identified demographically vulnerable groups that were more impacted by mental health issues, especially those engaged with distance learning.

Notably, older Black and Hispanic children from low-income families were more vulnerable to mental health problems than young, white, rich kids. This underscored the differential consequences that remote learning imposed upon some populations and revealed the critical need for equal education and psychological assistance provision. Recognition of these disparities becomes imperative for public health in relation to the current COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 era. This study emphasizes the need to make efforts at eliminating these disparities in education and mental healthcare, which form part of essential steps towards reducing the high occurrences of poor mental health among children.

The importance of funding for this research, as well as the mental health workforce, is stressed through this comprehensive analysis. The importance of these resources lies in providing an equal opportunity to get necessities for all students regardless of the student’s origin, gender, and ethnicity. Additionally, the study’s suggestions are conducive to fostering healthy surroundings that promote and guarantee children’s well-being when faced with traumatic experiences characteristic of our present pandemic era. Childhood depression is a critical public issue because when mental health concerns are identified at an early age, prevention is possible. Untreated, this condition can have immense long-term consequences outside of school. This calls for identifying, supporting, and intervening in childhood depression.

Therefore, it becomes necessary to acknowledge that there are several dimensions behind the mental health challenges experienced by children in remote learning, even if they come from different social strata or groups. Building safe, supportive, and fair learning environments promoting positive mental health for all children is a collective endeavor. Insights from this study guide policymakers, educators, and mental healthcare providers toward developing responsive interventions explicitly targeting these at-risk groups.

In their study, Allgaier et al. (2014) used CDS to strengthen early detection of childhood depression. Reliable screening measures in child’s mental health care. This study strengthens the call for standard depression screening in schools by highlighting the importance of appropriate screening tools. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to show how these screenings play an essential role in better detection of depression among children. The use of a validated screening instrument such as the Children’s Depression Screener improves the validation reliability and efficiency of detecting early symptoms of depression in the pediatric population of children.

Also, it highlights the importance of early and precise identification of childhood depression. Detecting depression in the early stages prompts quick and specific actions directed toward child-based mental problems. Early detection and treatment can help reduce the severity of depressive symptoms so that they are less likely to affect the child’s development and academic outcome. The work of Allgaier and his colleagues makes a significant contribution to discussions concerning the provision of child mental healthcare through systemic, school‐based screening for depression (Allgaier et al., 2014). This emphasizes that if schools begin routinely screening children using valid instruments such as the Children’s Depression Screener, they will be able to offer significantly improved mental health support for students.

However, Bignardi et al.’s (2021) study gives essential information about the increased number of depression symptoms in children during COVID-19 restrictions. It discusses the consequences of the pandemic on children’s mental health and the changes in depression symptoms within a framework of lockdown. The findings of the study show a great deal of increase in depressive symptoms among children during their lockdowns. It is worth noting that it is essential to take preventive actions on mental health problems related to the COVID-19 situation that children experience. The sharp increase in depressive symptoms emphasizes the tremendous emotional impact of extended lockdowns and pandemic uncertainty on adolescent students.

The findings point out the need to establish standardized screening policies for depression within schools. Schools thus have to conduct routine screening so that emerging mental health challenges among children can be dealt with at an early stage. These screenings can offer early detection and may help reduce the effects of adverse stresses on the mood of young people. Such results highlight the vital significance of systematic screening programs for children’s depression in improving the children’s psycho-hygiene level. Such programs will identify depressive symptoms that may require timely intervention. This will be important for school-age children struggling with mental distress, especially when there is an epidemic like COVID-19.

Marques de Miranda et al. (2020), for instance, explored the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of children and adolescents. The study is crucial in identifying youth’s problems when disaster strikes. This study critically explores the complex influence of the pandemic on the mental health of youths, considering many stresses and interferences that youth live with. Although this is a unique phenomenon that has not been witnessed before, through the perspectives of children’s and adolescents’ diverse experiences, the research sheds light on issues such as the difficulties experienced by children and adolescents while coping with these times.

This reveals the critical need for recognizing various psychological problems that affect children and adolescents in the course of the epidemic. This study offers very important information on how the pandemic affected the emotional well-being of adolescents. It holistically evaluates the comprehensive multi-dimensional effects of COVID-19-based changes, including loneliness, disturbed patterns, uncertainty, and abrupt shift to online schooling. The psychological effects that affected young people when COVID-19 hit is an indication that it was not easy to go through. The crisis has an impact on children and adolescents in several ways. This is mainly because these are delicate age groups.

Furthermore, the research emphasizes customized strategies that can help children and adolescent’s mental health during such a crisis. This highlights the need for special interventions and support structures tailored towards addressing the emotional challenges that youth experience in such turbulent periods. This research provides significant inputs on how the mental health issues in the youth are affected by the pandemic and promotes a more in-depth comprehension of the mental health landscape of children and teens in crises. This underscores the need to have committed interventions in place that are meant to ensure good mental health for this population.


Untreated and unidentified depression in schoolchildren leads to significant outcomes. Recent studies stress the severe damage that is caused to the general health of the child due to depression. For example, Barch et al. (2019) revealed that early childhood depression could hinder both emotional well-being and the development of cognition, including functions like memory and management of moods. Moreover, studies carried out by Allgaier, Cramer, and Maughan (2014) indicate that depression in children should be treated immediately as it may impair their future mental abilities. Therefore, in the early detection process, it is necessary to consider what kind of screening was used. Schools can usually carry out mood screening or questionnaires to identify the emotional state of their learners.

As such, systematically screening school-aged children for depression calls for elaborate planning and an all-encompassing model addressing diverse organizational, fiscal, and access challenges. Qualified mental health experts in educational settings carry the significant burden of performing these screenings. Specially trained counselors and sometimes designated staff would carry out the screening tests using age-appropriate assessment instruments for various stages of development.

On the other hand, there is an issue of worry about students with no insurance or limited coverage. Access to effective mental health services in Australia can be hindered by poor medical aid insurance coverage. For this to happen, the program might use funds from the federal or state meant to boost mental health services to fill this gap. Such undertakings require careful budgetary analysis that may involve raising taxes and reallocating money from other sectors to make space for this essential program. It is crucial to tackle such differences whereby there are variations in the accessibility of mental health services throughout various regions within a country. However, the program may be prone to fail in giving equal services to people in areas that scarcely have access to mental health resources. These include collaborations with community health centers, telehealth services, or outreach programs that aim at extending mental health support to underserved areas. It entails fostering strategic alliances and even reconfiguring resource distribution for improved accessibility of mental health services across the entire country.

The administrative process includes collaborations among education centers, health providers, local governments, and community-based institutions. It will have to emphasize standardized protocols for its personnel and coordination strategies. Funding for program administration can come from federal or state funds meant to promote mental health. One must examine the cost consequences accompanying planning to integrate depression screening into federal and state budgets systematically. The mental health drive may necessitate real adjustments to the budget, and it is either to take resources from other activities or to raise taxes to cater to this drive. In order to discuss budget integration, one must know the long-term benefits associated with mental health priority in kids and its social effect.


Today, we are surrounded by various unexpected challenges, and focusing on our schoolchildren’s mental health is extremely relevant. These complications extended far beyond the first stage of the actual health crisis that COVID-19 caused. We have observed this in the case of extended loneliness and unstable study situations, which are a significant burden to them. As observed in this capstone project, screening school children for depression is not an option but an imperative. This endeavor recognizes that their mental well-being is a concern, not a personal issue. Childhood depression that remains undetected can reverberate during a person’s lifetime, affecting emotional regulation, cognitive functioning, and quality of life.

Systematic screening imposes much planning for logistics and financial support. These screening instruments are administered by trained mental health professionals within education settings with appropriate tools in a non-threatening atmosphere and by promoting conversation. Nevertheless, the lack of insurance coverage for mental health services remains one big obstacle that requires specific funding to make everything inclusive to all students. Collaboration among healthcare providers and community organizations and the optimal use of scarce resources are essential for successfully implementing this program. Therefore, there is a pressing need for the innovation of partnerships to offer extended support to places where a service gap exists. Standard operating procedures, trained personnel, and significant collaboration with different parties must accompany the administration.

Implementing this program on a federal or state budget requires a delicate balance. The implementation of this project might require budgetary readjustments and even new tax regimes for funding the health sector programs. Although these decisions are heavy, it is necessary to understand the far-reaching benefits of putting a child’s mental health first. Hence, this capstone project serves as a map to protect our children’s emotional health. This calls for complete screening procedures, supportive schools, and inclusive teaching methods. It aims to construct an environment that nurtures the mind by integrating technology with cultural inclusion and parent involvement. It also recognizes the challenges presented by COVID-19 and highlights the role of resiliency as a critical strategy that can be implemented for our pre-schoolers.


Abramson, A. (2022, January 1). Children’s mental health is in crisis. Monitor on Psychology, 53(1)

Allgaier, A.-K., Krick, K., Opitz, A., Saravo, B., Romanos, M., & Schulte-Körne, G. (2014). Improving early detection of childhood depression in mental health care: The Children Depression Screener (ChilD-S). Psychiatry Research, 217(3), 248–252.

Alsaad, A. J., & Yasser Al Nasser. (2019, December 12). Depression In Children.; StatPearls Publishing.

Barch, D. M., Harms, M. P., Tillman, R., Hawkey, E., & Luby, J. L. (2019). Early childhood depression, emotion regulation, episodic memory, and hippocampal development. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 128(1), 81–95.

Bignardi, G., Dalmaijer, E. S., Anwyl-Irvine, A. L., Smith, T. A., Siugzdaite, R., Uh, S., & Astle, D. E. (2020). Longitudinal increases in childhood depression symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 106(8), archdischild-2020-320372.

Hawrilenko, M., Masyn, K. E., Cerutti, J., & Dunn, E. C. (2021). Individual Differences in the Stability and Change of Childhood Depression: A Growth Mixture Model With Structured Residuals. Child Development, 92(4).

Marques de Miranda, D., da Silva Athanasio, B., Sena Oliveira, A. C., & Simoes-e-Silva, A. C. (2020). How is the COVID-19 pandemic impacting the mental health of children and adolescents? International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 51(101845), 101845.

Mills, S. E. E., & Baker, L. D. (2016). Childhood depression. InnovAiT: Education and Inspiration for General Practice, 9(9), 524–530.

Vaillancourt, T., McDougall, P., Comeau, J., & Finn, C. (2021). COVID-19 school closures and social isolation in children and youth: Prioritizing relationships in education. Facets6(1), 1795-1813.


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