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Causal Factors of Psychosis


When a person’s mental capacity to understand reality, communicate, and relate to others is hampered, it interferes with their ability to meet daily living demands. Severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are psychotic disorders. People who suffer from psychoses are unable to grasp reality. Delusions and hallucinations are two of the most common symptoms. You may believe that someone is plotting against you or receiving secret messages from the television. Hallucinations are instances in which a person believes they are experiencing sensations or hearing or seeing things that do not exist. The phrase childhood trauma is used to describe a wide range of bad life experiences that contribute to experiences that indicate psychosis. According to a study, numerous unfavorable health issues have been linked to childhood trauma. She’s 37 years old, and Aisha has psychosis. This occurs in the context of a history of similar abuses that impact the patient’s pathophysiology. According to a recent North American Psychiatric literature analysis, childhood exposure to social and environmental stressors may be a risk factor for developing psychosis (Gupta et al.,2019, p74). A study released in the Netherlands found that if a child had been abused, there was a strong likelihood that they would display psychotic symptoms. Abuse may be a significant factor in demonstrating that participants who had been abused were more likely than those who had not been to suffer from need-based psychosis. On the other hand, some studies believe that psychosis is sometimes a hereditable brain illness. There are psychosocial problems, such as poverty, substance addiction, child maltreatment and neglect, bad urban living conditions, war, and rape, which the stress-vulnerability model occasionally emphasizes as potential predisposing factors.

Family relationship and social support

The following conditions will be evaluated in the case study analysis. First and foremost, the evaluation aims to identify and discuss the most pressing concerns of the patient and their loved ones, taking into account the potential impact on the patient, their loved ones, and the medical team. Lastly, we’ll talk about how medical professionals can contribute to the solution. Having a family member with schizophrenia can be challenging enough, but the “external stresses of social stigma, isolation, and emotional frustration” can make things more difficult. As members of a family work together to care for one another daily, disagreements might emerge (Chien et al., 2010, pg.228-223).

Psychosis has a profound effect on the entire family. Psychosis is often followed by a painful grieving process that impacts everyone involved. Shock/denial, coping with the loss, and acceptance are all parts of the grieving process. People going through various stages of sorrow will require multiple types of support. There may be tension in the family because everyone goes through heartache at different rates. Families can go through the grief process multiple times while dealing with psychosis. To be expected. However, it is also crucial to keep an eye on how the stress and grief of this sickness affect family members and do not hesitate to seek additional counseling. Psychosis can put a lot of strain on marriages and families since people can come to diverse judgments about dealing with the condition. Patience and good verbal and written communication skills become essential. It can take a long time for many families to realize that their loved one has psychosis because of the many “prodromal” symptoms. Early signs of depression, such as insomnia, social withdrawal, and behavioral shifts, are frequently misdiagnosed as drug use, bad behavior, or plain laziness. Some people may turn to drugs to cope with the early alterations in memory, focus, and mental process. The Marmot Review (2010) emphasizes the significance of social health support, with loneliness and social isolation being connected to an increased risk of mental illness. Strong social ties have been linked to enhanced health and well-being, as well as faster recovery from sickness; they may even serve as a safeguard against dementia and other forms of cognitive decline (Marmot et al.,.2010, p, 1255). Residents of poorer communities are more likely to suffer from a lack of social support than residents of more affluent areas. According to the Department of Health, the lack of social support is a problem for public health because it has been shown to have a detrimental impact on health and health disparities. A measure of social isolation was added to the “Adult in Social care framework” to help identify areas where older individuals are more likely to experience loneliness and tailor care accordingly (Sutcliffe, 2012). Social inclusion and assistance for citizens and communities are also emphasized to ensure that health is of priority in contributing to a healthy mental status.

Sociological factor in physical and mental health

Mental and physical health is strongly linked to the experiences of one’s early years. Childhood trauma, such as domestic violence, abuse, deprivation, and parental divorce, might raise a person’s risk of bad health in adulthood. It’s also true, of course, that not everyone who has a traumatic experience as a child will go on to have health issues later in life. A child’s ability to cope with adversity can be boosted by factors such as feeling loved and having an adult in the household concerned about their education. Throughout a person’s life, social support is essential in helping them cope with difficult or stressful situations. The idea of mind-body duality has been challenged by the accumulation of research that suggests a strong correlation between mental and physical health. The biopsychosocial model of health identifies several possible mechanisms for this relationship, including physiological, behavioral, and social. The relationship between psychological and physical health is a two-way street, impacting the latter.

Individuals’ participation in economic, social, and cultural life is defined as social inclusion. Participation in such activities is viewed as helpful to both the individual and society. Social exclusion can have both a cause and an effect on a person’s mental health. However, most studies have focused on the social exclusion of those with common mental diseases like depression and anxiety. Many studies show that those who suffer from psychotic illness are more likely than individuals with other types of mental illnesses to have dropped out of school, lost their jobs, been indebted, or otherwise suffered from social exclusion. Disease, pre-existing social disadvantage, or hurdles such as lack of money and stigma are all possible explanations for these exclusion indicators. People with more severe mental health issues, such as treatment-resistant schizophrenia, are particularly vulnerable to social exclusion because of the adverse effects it can have on their motivation and ability to ensure that participation within the society enables the formation of relationships. Users of forensic mental health services have also been found to have high rates of social exclusion due to their mental health issues and the crimes that brought them into contact with forensic services, which may lead to public fear and hostility if they can participate in social activities.

The presence of stigma mainly determines social exclusion. Several factors contribute to stigma, including a lack of understanding, biases, and discriminatory behavior. Stigmatizing ideas about mental illness are common throughout cultures, and these beliefs are executed through discriminatory and excluding behaviors. The economic exclusion of people with mental illness, the denial of legal rights to vote, marry, or own property (political exclusion), and the ostracization of people with mental illness (social exclusion) are common in many nations (sociocultural exclusion). The stigma, prejudice, and marginalization of people with mental illness are highly damaging to their well-being. When mental illness is stigmatized, people’s well-being and self-esteem are adversely affected. Social and mental sickness and isolation are linked to early mortality, interconnected via chronic disease and lifestyle factors. To heal from mental illness, people must overcome the stigma and discrimination. Mental health care centered on the needs of its patients is a core goal of human rights and global mental health programming alike. Increasing social inclusion interventions aims to lessen the negative consequences of social exclusion produced by individuals’ attitudes, structures, and behaviors. Implementing community-based mental health and employment, housing, and anti-stigmatization programs in high-income nations has been documented. There is significant evidence to support employment programs for people with mental illness and attempts to reduce stigma.

For Repper and Perkins (2001), social inclusion demands equitable access and participation in core social functions, such as health care, employment, education, suitable housing, and a reduction in disability’s negative influence on a person’s life’s purpose. Department of Health (2009) describes social inclusion in mental health care as “enhanced rights to access the social and economic worlds. ” As a result of these new changes, disability has become less of an issue. As a result of these recent changes, disability has become less of a problem. According to Bates et al. (2002), everyone, including those who require mental health services, should enjoy good health, develop their skills and abilities, earn a salary, and live in the community in safety (P,326). Only by respecting individuals’ contributions to society can we truly attain social inclusion. Having mental health issues doesn’t mean that someone can’t positively contribute to the community. People must be allowed to make their own decisions if they have access to the knowledge they need. Service users and their families need to be actively involved in the care of those with mental health issues in the professional setting. Mental health providers must address social inclusion at both the ethnos and demos levels to assist people in constructing their lives (Repper and Perkins, 2003). When people can engage in their society and feel like they belong, they are more inclined to do so. This is especially true if they are guaranteed necessities like a comfortable home and a job. To achieve social inclusion, it is not enough to treat or care for people with mental illness; it is necessary to establish and pursue goals of recovery, social inclusion, and the elimination of service user discrimination. For the first time in mental health practice, a new foundation for common ground has been established between the multi-disciplinary team and service users.

Concerning researchers who place a high value on social and emotional well-being necessitates special attention to these values. According to several academics, this perspective reveals a positive and comprehensive approach to the individual’s physical and emotional well-being. According to this school of thought, individuals, families, and communities must all be taken into consideration to create a state of social, emotional, and physical well-being. A nurse who focuses on the fundamentals of social and emotional well-being can play an essential role in the overall care plan. For patients from various backgrounds and cultures, she can participate in healthcare initiatives. Patients are additionally empowered, and a wide range of their needs and problems are addressed due to these approaches. However, many argue that a healthcare provider’s focus on these dynamics could distract them from the real issue. When deciding on a medical treatment plan, it is essential to consider the patient’s social and emotional well-being. Treatment alternatives including medication, lifestyle changes, and counseling can then be recommended based on the medical practitioner’s ability to identify the root cause of the problem. This is the only method to truly understand society’s impact on a person’s physical and emotional well-being. An accurate picture of a patient’s health status and the underlying causes of their illness or impairment cannot be painted, making it impossible to pick the best course of therapy.


Gupta, M., & Kay, L. R. (2002). The impact of” phenomenology” on North American psychiatric assessment. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 9(1), 73-85.

Goulding, S. M., Chien, V. H., & Compton, M. T. (2010). Prevalence and correlates of school drop-out before initial treatment of nonaffective psychosis: further evidence suggesting a need for supported education. Schizophrenia Research, 116(2-3), 228-233.

Marmot, M., Allen, J., & Goldblatt, P. (2010). A social movement, based on evidence, to reduce inequalities in health: Fair Society, Healthy Lives (The Marmot Review). Social science & medicine (1982)71(7), 1254-1258.

Sutcliffe, K., Rees, R., Dickson, K., Hargreaves, K., Schucan-Bird, K., Kwan, I., … & Thomas, J. (2012). The adult social care outcomes framework: A systematic review of systematic reviews to support its use and development. EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London, London.

Perkins, R., & Repper, J. (2001). Mental health nursing and social inclusion. Mental Health Practice4(5).

Liddle, P. F., Ngan, E. T., Caissie, S. L., Anderson, C. M., Bates, A. T., Quested, D. J., … & Weg, R. (2002). Thought and Language Index: an instrument for assessing thought and language in schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry181(4), 326-330.


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