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Briefing Paper: Election Campaigns


Campaigning for elected office is necessary for democratic procedures (Al-Mamoory and Hassan, 2022). Voters are targeted to sway voters’ opinions, educate them on relevant subjects, and encourage them to exercise their right to vote (Denton et al., 2019). Political campaigns are held at many different levels of government, ranging from local councils to national parliaments, and they involve participation from candidates, political parties, and interest groups (Childers et al., 2019). In this backgrounder, we will investigate the goals of election campaigns as well as the conditions under which constituency-level campaigns are the most successful.

What do election campaigns seek to do?

Election campaigns seek to achieve several objectives, which include the following:

  1. Persuading voters:

Election campaigns have one primary objective: to convince people to back a specific political party or candidate (Al-Mamoory and Hassan, 2022). Advertising, public speaking, door-to-door canvassing, and using social media are just a few of the strategies that political parties and candidates use to accomplish this goal (Bale et al., 2019). Convincing people that a particular political party or candidate has the best policies and leadership to address their wants and problems is the ultimate goal of this campaign (Gilardi et al., 2022).

  1. Informing voters:

Campaigns for public office also enlighten people about the topics that will be decided by their vote (Denton et al., 2019). Campaigns are used by political parties and politicians to express their opinions on a variety of subjects (Gerstlé and Nai, 2019), including the economy, education, healthcare, and national security. Parties and candidates have the opportunity to express their policy proposals and engage people in a conversation about the course of action they see for the country through their respective election campaigns (Haynes, 2019).

  1. Mobilizing voters:

Election campaigns have another objective: to encourage people to cast their ballots on the day of the election (Gilardi et al., 2022). Participation of voters is one of the most critical factors that might influence the outcome of an election (Bale et al., 2019). Campaigns run by political parties and candidates are intended to urge people to participate in the election process and cast their votes (Gerstlé and Nai, 2019).

  1. Generating media coverage:

Campaigns seek to generate media coverage and publicity to raise the profile of their party or candidate (Al-Mamoory and Hassan, 2022). This involves crafting compelling messages and visuals that resonate with voters, generating media coverage and publicity (Denton et al., 2019), and using social media to engage with voters and build a community of supporters (Sahly et al., 2019).

Under what conditions are constituency-level campaigns most effective?

The success of election campaigns is contingent upon various circumstances, including the political climate, the demographics of the constituent base, and the resources made available to political parties and candidates (Haynes, 2019). In this part of the discussion, we will investigate the circumstances under which campaigns at the constituency level are the most successful.

  1. Competitive races

When there is a close fight for office, campaigning at the level of the constituent is at its most productive (Denton et al., 2019). When many viable candidates vying for the same office, the outcome of the election is never assured, and parties and candidates have a large chance to impact voters’ attitudes (Sahly et al., 2019). In a un closely contested election, the party or candidate with the greatest significant advantage will likely win. The amount of work put into the campaign may not significantly affect the outcome (Pattie et al., 2019).

  1. A high voter turnout

Campaigns on the level of a constituency are at their most successful when there is a large voter turnout (Pattie et al., 2019). A high voter participation rate is indicative of citizens who are involved and interested in the election process; hence, parties and candidates have a more significant opportunity to communicate with voters and persuade them to support their campaigns (Wahman, 2020).

  1. Targeting swing voters

Campaigns at the constituency level are at their most successful when political parties and candidates are able to target undecided voters (Gilardi et al., 2022). Those on the fence about which party or candidate they will support or who are considering switching allegiances are swing voters (Childers et al., 2019). Campaigns run by political parties and candidates can be used to win over people who are on the fence about which candidate or party they will support.

  1. Personalized campaigning

When political parties and candidates are able to participate in individualized campaigning at the constituency level, those campaigns are at their most successful (Pattie et al., 2019). The term “personalized campaigning” refers to the process of adapting campaign messaging and strategies to specific subgroups of voters on the basis of demographic, geographic, or other criteria (Sahly et al., 2019). By using personalized campaigning, political parties and candidates can interact with voters on a more personal level and respond to the problems and issues unique to each voter.

  1. Sufficient resources

When political parties and candidates have access to sufficient resources, campaigning at the constituency level is most successful (Stetka et al., 2019). An adequate amount of resources consists of monetary, people, and technological resources (Childers et al., 2019). Campaigns that are more extensive, more successful, and reach more voters, attracting more media attention, can be launched by parties and candidates with more resources.

  1. Solid organization at the grassroots level

Campaigns at the level of individual constituencies are most successful when political parties and candidates have robust grassroots organizations (Pattie et al., 2019). Volunteers, activists, and supporters actively campaigning and organizing voters make up the membership of a grassroots group (Gerstlé and Nai, 2019). A robust grassroots organization has the potential to reach a more significant number of voters, arrange events, and build excitement for the campaign.

  1. Use of the media in an efficient manner

Campaigns at the constituency level are at their most successful when political parties and candidates are able to make good use of the media (Wahman, 2020). The term “media” encompasses both traditional sources of communication like television, radio, and newspapers, as well as newer kinds of communication, including social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram (Gilardi et al., 2022). To effectively use media, one must first generate media coverage and publicity, design appealing ideas and images that resonate with voters, and then use social media to engage with voters and establish a community of supporters.


Election campaigns on the constituency level aim to convince voters, educate them on the issues at stake, and encourage them to participate in the democratic process by casting their ballots (Al-Mamoory and Hassan, 2022). The success of these campaigns is determined by some different aspects, including the degree to which the race is competitive, the number of voters who participate in the election, the identification of swing voters, the use of personalized campaigning, sufficient resources, a robust grassroots organization, and efficient utilization of the media (Mathur et al., 2023). Political parties and candidates can run successful campaigns and boost their prospects of victory in democratic processes if they have a solid knowledge of these elements.

It is important to note that the success of election campaigns is not only determined by the conditions that were discussed above but also by other factors such as the quality of the message, the charisma of the candidate, and the ability to generate media attention (Gerstlé and Nai, 2019). All of these aspects play a role in determining the success of election campaigns. In addition, the success of a campaign may vary from one constituency to another due to the fact that different aspects of a candidate’s platform may resonate more strongly with voters in other regions (Stetka et al., 2019).

In conclusion, political parties and candidates need to acknowledge the significance of campaigning at the level of individual constituencies in the democratic process (Mathur et al., 2023). Parties and candidates may improve their prospects of victory in close elections by concentrating their efforts on persuading voters, running individualized campaigns, establishing solid grassroots groups, and using the media well (Haynes, 2019). In the end, successful campaigns must center their attention on the issues and concerns that are most important to voters and develop convincing recommendations for how to solve those issues and problems (Pattie et al., 2019). By acting in this manner, political parties and candidates may earn the trust and support of voters, so bolstering democratic procedures.


Al-Mamoory, S.M.A. and Hassan, A.F., 2022. Semiotic Study of Iraqi Electoral Campaigns. Humanitarian and Natural Sciences Journal3(1), pp.926-933.

Bale, T., Webb, P. and Poletti, M., 2019. Footsoldiers: Political party membership in the 21st century. Routledge.

Childers, C.C., Lemon, L.L. and Hoy, M.G., 2019. # Sponsored# Ad: Agency perspective on influencer marketing campaigns. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising40(3), pp.258-274.

Denton Jr, R.E., Trent, J.S. and Friedenberg, R.V., 2019. Political campaign communication: Principles and practices. Rowman & Littlefield.

Gerstlé, J. and Nai, A., 2019. Negativity, emotionality and populist rhetoric in election campaigns worldwide, and their effects on media attention and electoral success. European Journal of Communication34(4), pp.410-444.

Gilardi, F., Gessler, T., Kubli, M. and Müller, S., 2022. Social media and political agenda setting. Political Communication39(1), pp.39-60.

Haynes, D., 2019. Presidential Nominations. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.

Mathur, A., Wang, A., Schwemmer, C., Hamin, M., Stewart, B.M. and Narayanan, A., 2023. Manipulative tactics are the norm in political emails: Evidence from 300K emails from the 2020 US election cycle. Big Data & Society10(1), p.20539517221145371.

Pattie, C., Hartman, T.K. and Johnston, R., 2019. Not all campaigns are created equal: Temporal and spatial variability in constituency campaign spending effects in Great Britain, 1997–2015. Political Geography71, pp.36-46.

Sahly, A., Shao, C. and Kwon, K.H., 2019. Social media for political campaigns: An examination of Trump’s and Clinton’s frame building and its effect on audience engagement. Social Media+ Society5(2), p.2056305119855141.

Stetka, V., Surowiec, P. and Mazák, J., 2019. Facebook as an instrument of election campaigning and voters’ engagement: Comparing Czechia and Poland. European Journal of Communication34(2), pp.121-141.

Wahman, M., 2020. Violence and Money: A Constituency-level Survey of Pre-electoral Manipulation. In Democracy and Electoral Politics in Zambia (pp. 283-310). Brill.


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