Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which today accounts for one in three fatalities each year, killed more Americans than any other disease during the 20th century. The prevalence of CVD rises with aging and is highest in adults. A substantial body of research has shown that physical inactivity, (sedentary behavior), which is frequently referred to as failing to meet physical activity recommendations,3 is a key risk factor for CVD (Bellettiere et al., 2019). It is therefore important to assess the relationship between sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease which was the perfect as the population health topic for this proposed study. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between sedentary behavior and CVD risk using the case-control study design.
What is the relationship between Sedentary Behavior and the risk of developing Cardiovascular disease in adults aged 35years and older?
Epidemiological Study Design.
Case- Control is the best fit because it analysis the exposure and disease event in a retrospective manner. The data is readily available in medical records, disease registers, and databases of some specific health problems. Cases and controls should be chosen so that they are representative of the source population (Munnangi, 2023).
The strength of connections between various risk variables and outcomes is assessed using case-control studies. Exposures are the variables that influence a disease’s risk. Case-control studies can be used to pinpoint advantageous or detrimental exposures. In a case-control study, there are two groups of participants cases and controls, as the name implies. Patients with a certain illness, in this case cardiovascular disease, are referred to as cases. participants, who are considered controls don’t have the disease. Typically, researchers choose from the general population adequate representative controls for the cases they are researching. Then they go back in time and consider any past exposures to risk factors that these individuals may have experienced (Munnangi, 2023).
The following activities would be used to collect data for this study. Case identification would be the first step of data collection where hospital records or electronic health records of people with cardiovascular disease would be used to identify the cases. People who meet particular inclusion requirements, such as age, place of residence, and specific diagnostic criteria, should be included in the selection of cases (Antunez, 2022).
Control selection is also vital in this case study where controls would be chosen from the same source population as the cases, but they would not have a cardiovascular disease diagnosis. To choose controls, random sampling or frequency matching based on age, gender, and other pertinent criteria would be employed. In terms of potential confounding variables, this makes sure that the control group is equivalent to the cases (Antunez, 2022).
Standardized questionnaires would be the appropriate instrument for data collection on sedentary behavior, physical activity levels, medical history, lifestyle factors, and other potential confounders. To achieve accurate and dependable data collection, the questionnaires should be properly created and evaluated.
The selection of cases and controls would be based on the following methodologic strategies in this case study. Case selection in this study would include all eligible cases who had a cardiovascular disease diagnosis within a predetermined time limit. Age, place of residence, and particular diagnostic standards could all serve as inclusion criteria. To prevent selection bias, the instances should be thoroughly chosen and should include all pertinent cases (Antunez, 2022) .
Control selection is another methodology in this study. To ensure that controls have the same distribution of age, gender, and other potential confounding factors as cases, controls would be chosen at random or using frequency matching (Munnangi, 2023). By making cases and controls more comparable, it would lessen the possibility of analysis confounding.
Strengths and limitations.
The approach selected, however, offers a number of strengths and limitations. The strengths include cost-effective, having the capability to generate odds ratios that are appropriate for case-control studies, as well as being able to examine unusual events effectively. Because they enable a retrospective evaluation of exposures, case-control studies are particularly helpful for researching diseases with protracted latency periods, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD).
There are limitations to take into account, nevertheless. When using self-reported questionnaires to gather data on sedentary behavior and possible confounders, recall bias may first appear. Another limitation of this approach is that participants could struggle to accurately recall their prior behaviors, which could lead to misclassification. Case-control studies are vulnerable to recollection bias because of the study’s retrospective character. Case-control studies are simple, effective, and frequently quicker to carry out.
The rights and welfare of participants need to be protected when conducting this case study. Therefore, a number of factors require to be put into consideration. They include carrying out the study in accordance with laws and ethical standards, safeguarding participant confidentiality and privacy and gaining informed consent After being specifically informed of the study’s goals, any risks or benefits associated, and the anonymity of the participants, participation in the case study must be voluntary. Before any person is included in the study, their informed consent must be obtained (Munnangi, 2023).
According to Bellettiere et al., (2019), sedentary time and protracted sedentary accumulation patterns were connected to CVD risk in a dose-dependent way. The main aim of this proposed study is to assess the relationship between the physical inactivity and the risk of experiencing CVD in adults. The proposed study is meant to achieve this by using the case-control study design, collecting data through standardized questionnaire, and very particular methodologic strategies. Even while case-control studies have inherent benefits and drawbacks, thorough consideration of these aspects can help provide reliable results that guide cardiovascular disease prevention measures.
Antunez, H. G. (2022). Study Designs Commonly used in Epidemiology. Pressbooks. https://minnstate.pressbooks.pub/hgantunez/chapter/__study-designs-commonly-used-in-epidemiology__/
Bellettiere, J., LaMonte, M. J., Evenson, K. R., Rillamas-Sun, E., Kerr, J., Lee, I. M., … & LaCroix, A. Z. (2019). Sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease in older women: the OPACH study. Circulation, 139(8), 1036-1046.
Munnangi, S. (2023, April 24). Epidemiology of Study Design. StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470342/