Information technology has assisted in the sophisticated development of the product, the implementation of improved techniques for controlling risks as well as assisting the financial intermediaries to reach the diversified market. The banks have also found it easier to provide improved services to their customers by keeping an eye on the social and ethical aspects. Moreover, the managers also play an important role in keeping an eye on the effective and smooth operation of the banking sector with the help of ICT. In this study, the varied perspectives and the usage of ICT will be discussed considering the banking industry with a specific focus on Barclay bank.
In this era of competitiveness of the banking industry, information technologies, applications, and software play a crucial role. The software packages that were used by the banks since its inception have been changed along with the sophisticated product development, the varied techniques of controlling risks, financial intermediaries, and the improved market infrastructure (Bahrini and Qaffas, 2019). Barclay Plc, a UK-based multinational bank provides global financial services across different financial products as well as services. The bank is associated with retail banking, corporate and investment banking, credit cards as well as wealth management with a presence in America, Europe, Africa as well as Asia (Barclay bank, 2022.). This study will carry out an in-depth analysis on the varied types of the application software used by Barclay, the importance of ethical and social issues in the digital world for smooth banking operation by drawing relevant literature. Further, it will also discuss the effect of ICT on businesses and the role of IT in assisting managers to tackle businesses.
According to Petrov (2018), the requirement of the banks differs depending on the volume and the nature of the business. Most of the time, the banks do not possess the required information though it has different branches. The operating units of the banks do not know the purpose of collecting information and thus depend on the higher level. Further, fulfilling the expectation of the customers also enhances the increased level of competition. In most cases, it is found that one particular bank is unable to provide services to the customers with accuracy and speed, the IT department of another bank remains available to provide the same level of service. On the other hand, Kuznetsova et al. (2020) stated that Socure provides accuracy and market-leading coverage for managing comprehensive solutions to the banks. There are more than 1000+ fintech as well as banks relying on Socure for carrying out comprehensive verification of the identity along with fraud detection across the customer lifecycle. Further, Kuznetsova et al. (2020) has also focused on Plaid software which is considered to be one of the easiest ways to connect to the bank account of the customers. The developers using this software tries to provide the easiest solution to the customers only by using a few code lines.
According to He (2021), it has been found that nCino, the leader of cloud banking worldwide provides end-to-end single as well as seamless integration to the core operating system. With the help of this software, it becomes easier to streamline the experiences of the customers as well as the interaction of the employees within a cloud-based bank. Further, the author has also focused on Corniche which assists the banks and the financial service organizations to tackle commodity brokerage, escrow payment, process interest, transaction, and record management accordingly. Moreover, Hadi et al. (2021) opined that the banks in the UK are trying their best to modernize their technology platforms so that it becomes easier for them to open up the payment infrastructure to smaller banks, leverage the automation process, and tackle the proliferation of data. As the economy of the UK is driven by changes in the technological aspect along with the global economic power, it has been found that the role of the banks in the creation of appropriate conditions has become much tougher. The banks are trying their best to rebuild and tackle the payment infrastructure to provide access to smaller fintech.
According to Hassan, Rabbani, and Ali (2020), the economic crisis of banks caused millions of job losses. Social finance and the social banking industry can be considered as the major trends among the customers of the bank in Europe and the US. This crisis has transformed the social banks from niche institutions to public visible players. There has to be a growing level of awareness among the bank customers that can be considered as social banking which is a community, ethical as well as responsible oriented. Further, the social banks must also consider the sustainability in making financial decisions thereby considering the lending practices as well as the investments for improved quality of life. On the other hand, Jasim and Raewf (2020) stated that the social banks are trying to gain cultural power as it contains humanist and humane financial activities. The banks are involved in making profits for the promotion of environmental and human well-being. There should also be careful attempts made in managing the triple principle and thereby decide whom to lend money to consider the purpose. There also exist differences between the mainstream banks and social banks that are linked with the principle of profit maximization.
Mosteanu and Faccia (2020) highlighted that the digital environment offers varied types of challenges and opportunities making it difficult for the bank to tackle them. Big data is posing a challenge in maintaining its security though, it has improved the process of granting loans and enhancing the business opportunity to a great extent. The banks face the problem of cybersecurity as well as data protection thereby creating stress among the minds of the customers. There has to be a virtuous circle of trust so that it becomes easier for the customers to visualize the products and the services by granting access to data along with the facilitation of adequate knowledge. On the other hand, McNamara, Smith, and Murphy-Hill (2018) opined that personal privacy, access rights, patents, trade secrets, and the copyrights threats are the crucial ethical challenges faced by the banks. It is the responsibility of the banks to be cautious of all these ethical aspects in the effective utilization of information technology. This will make it easier for the banks to recover from varied types of harmful actions that require extra effort and time thereby removing the virus from the computer system.
According to Roblek et al. (2019), it has been found that with the help of ethical aspects, it becomes easier for the banks to develop and build strong communities through the establishment of ideals and principles governing the flow of finances. It is the responsibility of the banks to adopt such a practice as they provide the last chance to many start-ups for getting the desired level of funding. In such a situation, it is important to establish the set of principles to operate through a noble endeavor thereby refusing to take on the work of the clients or work in collaboration with the organizations. On the other hand, Jakšič and Marinč (2019), it has been found that the social aspects will focus on satisfying the existing needs of the society and the economy considering the social, ecological, and cultural aspects. Social banking can be considered to be caring as it enhances societal progress more than traditional and mainstream banking. By considering the social aspects, it has also become for the banks to focus on further investment in the community providing an improved level of opportunity for the disadvantaged group as well as supporting the social, ethical, and environmental aspects.
According to Toader et al. (2018), Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has enhanced the services of the banking sector by managing the cost reduction benefits, the innovation as well as giving contribution access to customers who are located outside the branch network thereby creating further opportunities for cross-selling. On the other hand, Sepehrdoust and Ghorbanseresht (2019) opined that ICT has been trying its best to enter virtually into the banks thereby providing improved ways to process, store and distribute the information within the banks as well as among the customers. With the enhanced level of application of the ICT, there has been an improved level of provision for the enhancement of coordination, controlling the operations as well as increasing the managerial usage to a great extent.
Bahrini and Qaffas (2019) stated that the socio-technical view (STV) of an organization tackles the optimal benefit since the acquisition of ICT and thus it must be potentially harnessed in the fulfillment of the organizational objective. The socio-technical view of an organization highlighted that it is important to take instructive notes so that the acquisition of ICT does not act as a guarantor to enhance organizational performance. There should be optimal harnessing for the fulfillment of the organizational objectives. Further, the socio-technical view of an organization is complementary and is developed based upon the resource-based view of the firm including the combination of the human and the technological inputs that are complex. However, it is important to keep a note of the organizational routines that often become difficult to be imitated acting as the basis of competitive advantage for the enhancement of the improved level of performance.
Ezirim, Nnaji, and Ezirim opined that the socio-technical view theory underscores the ICT cost efficiency as it is an important condition for the attainment of optimality that is used in the deployment of the ICT for the improvement of the organizational performance. It also becomes essential to measure the efficiency in terms of the increase in the efficiency associated with the technical progress, being an important aspect of the technological change. The needs of the customers of the banking sector can be fulfilled by strengthening the internal control system in an improved way. On the other hand, Sepehrdoust and Ghorbanseresht (2019) highlighted that ICT affects different processes in this modern banking. This includes the preparation of the daily routines to preparing of the order entry and the payroll, the varied strategic activities such as the acquisition of the company. Although research work is being carried out, it is essential to evaluate the responses gathered from different banks as well as the benefits of adopting ICT. This will make it easier to measure the effect of ICT on the productivity of the banks viewed from the perspective of the customers. Moreover, with the help of ICT, one single cashier can tackle thousands of customers improving the cost-effectiveness of the banking sector to a great extent. This is possible only when the banks try to make investments in multiplex ICT investments along with the complementary investments in human capital, the working environment as well as the restructuring of the firm to enhance productivity.
Garg, Dar, and Mishra (2018) have analyzed and found that IT has assisted bank managers to a great extent. Although, the banks have tried to utilize varied bank-related information technological tools for managing the back and the front office jobs, however, all of them could not be considered to play an important role in the smooth and effective functioning of the bank. It has become easier for the bank managers to keep a track of the different inquiry facilities raised by the customers assisting the clerical staff and helping the bank grow within a short period. The periodical returns, as well as the generation of reports with the help of ICT, have also become much easier. On the other hand, Mbama et al. (2018) opined that the bank managers found it easy to reply to the complaints immediately or within a short time. This is likely to keep the customers satisfied and make it easier to resolve their problems within a stipulated time. Moreover, the transfer of information from the higher authority of the banks to lower as well as vice-versa through the interconnection of the computerized branches and the controlling offices has made it easier to carry out the decisions in a quick time. There are also chances of lowering the cost by improving the efficiency of the employees through the automation of the business processes.
According to Chege, Wang, and Suntu (2020), it has been found that bank managers can carry out planning that includes several stages measuring the objectives, the situational analysis as well as finding out the strategies to formulate the long-term plan successfully. With the help of strategic planning, it has become easier for the senior management to tackle the external information source and carry out future estimates of the budgeting and the sales operation. Further, different tactics are likely to assist the bank managers in the achievement of success within a short period such as judging the current and the future performance of the banks, scaling the problems with the suppliers as well as improving the demand of the consumers by gathering their previous data and analyzing it accordingly. Moreover, Rahi, Ghani, and Ngah (2019) have carried out the systematic analysis and found that the bank managers also find it easier to monitor the performance of the staff with the help of ICTs. This is possible only when the managers make sophisticated plans such as fulfilling a wider range of objectives. The decision-maker also considers a wider range of courses of action so that it becomes easier `to bring the situation under control.
Analysis and discussion
The software applications used by Barclay bank, UK includes Desktop Central, AlachiSoft, ManageEngine, eThority, eGain, Good, Liferay, CrowdTwist, clicktools and ManageEngine ADSelfService with the help of Desktop CentralA, it becomes easier for Barclay bank to regulate the varied form of management activities such as installation of patches, software, service packs as well as standardization of the desktops for the application of uniform configuration such as printer, shortcuts, and wallpapers. On the other hand, AlchiSoft operated by Diyatech Corp. also assisted Barclay bank to develop a profitable and revenue-funded model so that it becomes easier to achieve continuous growth (Barclay bank. 2022). The ManageEngine operated by IT Management and Infrastructural operations also assists in bringing the best and the most developed IT management services by providing input for the growth and the development of the community. Further, eThority-Sten Franke & Company also helps in carrying out web monitoring and is thus considered to be one of the most vital global players that is responsible for the implementation of digital intelligence. The Barclay bank with the help of eGain Communications tries to manage the operations and the management aspects for the improvement of efficiency and saving money (Barclays, 2022). With the help of Good technology, Barclay bank is successful in delivering application-level encryption along with data protection to its employees for sharing and documentation of the content. As there exist different types of functionalities, Barclay bank utilizes the applications operated by Good to enhance flexibility, access, save, edit, send and share the documents without putting a risk on the corporate data (Barclays, 2022). LifeRay Inc., an important software used by Barclay bank is used for the provision of consulting, training as well as enterprise support solutions and services to different clients in Asia Pacific and America. The CrowdTwisttour technology used by Barclay bank tackles the global data without relying heavily on technology as well as the quality that is important to engage, acquire and retain the customer segments accordingly (Barclay bank. 2022). Barclays bank also uses clicktools to understand their customers by managing access to different features without any technical expertise (Barclay bank. 2022). There are different types of features including real-time feedback, the extensive level of automation as well as the integration feature with CRM for managing simple and complex features accordingly.
As innovation possess a positive and negative impact on the business economy, Barclay bank has carried out different practices of transformation from its traditional way to the ear of information technology that laid social and ethical concerns on Barclay bank. As the entire business banking of Barclay bank is dependent on the communication and the service process, the bank often faces interrupted internet and intranet issues creating chaos among the staff and the customers (Circle of Business, 2022). Further, due to the interrupted issue of the internet and intranet, the e-banking service corner of the bank fails to provide the promised service to its customers. There has to be improvement made in the maintenance cost of the transaction information, the financial data as well as the employee’s record so that it develops trust among the customer’s mindset providing them quality and affordable services (Barclay bank. 2022). As Barclay bank is dependent on Local Area Network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), and Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), the bank has often failed to keep a healthy relationship with the small public and the private organizations making it difficult to transmit the data for carrying out the communication process (Barclay bank. 2022). The higher managerial authority of the banks needs to keep an eye on the transformation of the data through the WAN network This maintenance of ethical and social integrity is important in the era of digitalization thereby enhancing the information that is essential to carry out the improved level of business decisions.
With the help of ICT, Barclay bank has found it easier to maintain the varied forms of technological innovation as well as carry out electronic delivery smoothly. The bankers have found a form of evolution in their business and this was possible because of the quantum leap in the technological aspects that have taken place with the last few years. Further, ICT has also improved the services of telephone banking, computer banking as well as the operation of ATMs. The branch networking, as well as the Point of Sales (POS) facility of Barclay bank, has been enhanced with the help of ICT (Barclay bank. 2022). Further, it has been found that the development of this ICT has also assisted the banking manager to solve the of the customers by making effective usage of the technologies in the improvement of the products and services (Circle of Business, 2022). The managers are also trying to make a positive impact on the economic growth as well as the society. Moreover, the managers of Barclay bank have also received the opportunity to look for further opportunities by taking the help of ICT and thus collaborating with the start-ups.
Therefore, it can be said that the information technology solutions have assisted the banking industry to develop a partnership with fintech companies and start-ups for launching innovative solutions in the market. This ICT is likely to become the future of financial services where varied programs designed by the managerial authority will assist the customers and the staff to carry out the banking transaction safely. Thus, digitalization can be regarded as a vital priority for the growth of the banking industry.
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