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Push and Pull Factors of Migration

Migration occurs not only over short distances but also over long distances. People can move to a country or out of a country. Emigration involves people moving out of a country while immigration involves people entering a country. People move for various reasons whether voluntary or forced. Push factors are negative aspects that force individuals to move from that place. Pull factors are positive elements that make people move to a place. Both push and pull factors cause migration of people to and from a place. Migration can be promoted by social, economic, political and environmental factors.

Push factors include low employment opportunities, poor security services to the public, political wars, poor climate and drought among others. Many people leave a country to search for more job opportunities which are highly paying within fewer working hours. Most workers leave a country due to unemployment which makes their way of living hard. Many people are laid off from their jobs due to increased rate of industrialization which employs high technological services. Those with job opportunities are either given low wages or mistreated at the workplace for long working hours. Unemployment often push people to move to better places with more jobs, fewer working hours and better salaries.

Natural calamities such as floods, earthquakes and drought are it unsafe to continue staying in a place. Floods sweep away houses and farms leaving people homeless or sometimes drowns some people. Drought cuts farming opportunities to people leading to extreme poverty since most of the population may be depending on farming for food and income. Poor security of a place puts people’s life at risk compelling them to move to places which are well secured. Increased crime rates in a place also pushes individual to exit the place. Crimes such as gang violence leads to insecurity and people move to avoid such.

Political factors such political wars encourage movement of people in search of safety for their families. Most of the population is also displaced during such wars forcing people to look for peaceful places. Overpopulation and overcrowding forces people with large families and livestock to leave a place. People look for farming land and grazing lands for their cattle in sparsely populated places. People move to escape pandemics such as crop and human diseases. Poor services such as medical and poor education facilities push away individuals looking for better education and treatment facilities.

Pull factors include availability of employment opportunities, search for economic growth, better medical and educational services, high security and availability of land. People move to places with higher income chances, better quality of life in terms of health and security services. Employment opportunities with better working conditions, employee safety and high salaries highly influence migration to a place. Better public services such as education and transport facilities influence migration. People also move to places with no political unrest in pursuit of peaceful environments. Areas unlikely to have disasters like extreme famine and floods are safe for people to move to.

Places with more career opportunities, higher income and low cost of living attract more individuals to settle there. People are attracted to places with large farming lands and highly developed places in terms infrastructure, adequate water and electricity. Push factors of migration can be reduced by adapting peacebuilding strategies in areas with political wars and unrest to reduce political conflicts. The government can aim at providing more security services, abundant water and transportation services to promote development. Countries should create more employment opportunities to stop individuals from moving to places with job opportunities. Education and medical facilities should be improved to provide a better life to the people.

The government of the affected countries should provide relief food to areas affected by drought. Border restrictions can also be set through regional cooperation to stop individuals from moving out of a place.


  1. Parkins, N. C. (2010). Push and pull factors of migration. American Review of Political Economy, 8(2), 6.
  2. Krishnakumar, P., & Indumathi, T. (2014). PULL AND PUSH FACTORS OF MIGRATION. Global Management Review, 8(4).


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