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John Hattie’s Approach to Visible Learning


A significant contribution to the study of education has been made by John Hattie’s research, which was published in Visible Learning. It has fundamentally altered how educators evaluate the effectiveness of their approaches and how they may best support students’ learning. According to Hattie’s study, educators can most successfully promote learning by adapting their lessons and creating an atmosphere where students are engaged and motivated through feedback and formative assessment. He also found that technology utilisation and data-driven training can be useful approaches to increasing student achievement. This paper will explore some of the objections to John Hattie’s approach to visible learning and how the education system can be improved to ensure informed learning, good education research, quality education and equity in education.

John Hattie’s approach to visible learning

The research conducted by John Hattie and published in Visible Learning has proven to be a priceless resource for educators. It provides a thorough and fact-based analysis of the factors influencing student learning and accomplishment. Hattie’s research focuses on the “visible learner” idea, which looks at how teachers can give their students relevant feedback to help them learn and achieve more (Tucker, 2015). According to the obvious student technique, teachers should provide each student feedback that is specific to them, taking into account both their prior knowledge and current level of understanding.

The importance of feedback is emphasised in Hattie’s study, along with the importance of the classroom environment, student motivation, and instructor expectations for fostering learning and achievement (Hattie & Yates, 2013). He suggests that teachers promote and foster students’ excitement while also working to create a learning atmosphere conducive to learning (Hattie, 2009). Hattie advises teachers to consider the many ways that kids learn and make an effort to design a homeroom that accommodates each student’s preferred learning style (Tucker, 2015). He argues that teachers should encourage students to develop learning strategies and provide various learning resources and opportunities. Additionally, Hattie’s research highlights how important instructor presumptions are for promoting student learning and success. According to him, educators should hold students to high standards and provide regular, concise feedback that recognises and values their efforts.

Factors contributing to meaningful education and informing teaching practice.

Noticeable learning presents a careful and reality-based survey of the factors influencing students learning and accomplishment. John Hattie’s research serves as the foundation for this overview. According to Hattie & Yates (2013), when considering the numerous factors that influence student learning, teachers can create a learning environment conducive to learning and provide pertinent feedback to their students, enabling them to achieve better results.


To provide meaningful guidance, research should take into account multiple perspectives. This covers the student, the subject, the environment, and the method of imparting the knowledge. It is crucial to consider each student’s unique characteristics when inspecting a particular student (Hattie, 2009). This includes their preferred learning method, prior knowledge, personal goals, and hobbies. It is essential to perceive these characteristics to plan a customised learning climate for every student rather than a one-size-fits-all system (McCarthy & Denham, 2018). Research and their interactions with the material should be used to determine the most effective strategies for assisting diverse students in learning.


Exploration should consider the topic being trained to illuminate appropriate guidance. This incorporates the subject exactness, the broadness of the topic, and its relevance to the student (Awidi et al., 2019). It means thinking about the most productive method for conveying the topic, such as banter, contextual investigations, and media.


Thinking about the context in which the information is taught is also crucial. The learning environment’s impact on a student’s ability to learn should be considered in research (McCarthy & Denham, 2018). The social environment, cultural setting, and physical environment are all included in this. The use of different learning settings to advance learning should also be remembered for research.


Finally, the study should focus on the techniques used to convey the substance. The use of technology, the creation of materials, and the conduct of assessments are all included in this. In addition, research must concentrate on effective methods for evaluating students’ learning and engaging and inspiring them.


There are various objections that have been brought to light by various scholars in regard to Hattie’s approach to education. The fact that John Hattie’s method fails to consider the complexities of the educational environment is frequently criticised (Von, 1995). Hattie’s strategy relies upon a get-together assessment. Consequently, it leaves out many factors that can influence informational outcomes. For instance, Hattie’s approach disregards elements that may substantially impact academic achievements, such as a student’s socioeconomic position or family history (O’Connor, 2020). Additionally, Hattie’s approach needs to be revised to consider how children learn best and how teachers instructing them can significantly impact how well pupils perform academically.

Hattie’s procedure is criticised for being incredibly clear and vigorously centred around numbers. Hattie’s strategy emphasises “effect sizes” as a measure of educational efficacy but ignores qualitative aspects of education, like student involvement and the quality of the learning experience (O’Connor, 2020). Additionally, Hattie’s method emphasises assessing the instructor more than assessing each student’s learning (Von, 1995). This shows that Hattie’s strategy disregards the likelihood that different students might have different learning prerequisites or inclinations, which might affect instructive results.

Hattie’s strategy is, in some cases, scrutinised for putting a lot of consideration on the educator and less consideration on the students. The methodology utilised by Hattie depends on the understanding that instructors have the most impact on instructive results and are solely responsible for the achievement or failure of the student (Von, 1995). Hattie’s methodology neglects to incorporate a couple of different components: the family climate, the accessibility of assets, and the type of educational program.

Some critics also assert that Hattie’s methodology needs to include immediate effects at the expense of long-term effects. Hattie’s approach is based on the assumption that short-term improvements in academic performance will translate into long-term advantages, even if this may not always be the case (O’Connor, 2020). For instance, while some teaching techniques may temporarily improve students’ performance, they might not be beneficial in the long run. The main issue is that Hattie’s method needs to consider the long-term effects of informative strategies and tactics (O’Connor, 2020). For instance, a learning technique might initially help students’ grades, but its long-term impacts differ. Students may only be able to apply that technique in different contexts or retain information.

Additionally, some opponents contend that Hattie’s strategy overlooks the complexity of learning and growth. It may be useful for evaluating teaching strategies’ short-term efficacy, but it does not consider how those strategies might affect students’ long-term social and cognitive development (Von, 1995). For example, a learning method might find lasting success in giving specific expertise or information to students (O’Connor, 2020). However, it may fail to encourage the development of their decisive reasoning abilities.

John Hattie’s hypothesis on scholastic accomplishment has a few issues generally. His approach has been criticised for a number of things, including being overly simplistic and ignoring the educational situation’s complexity (Hattie & Yates, 2013). It is essential to consider their responses to develop a more comprehensive and efficient method for measuring instructional viability, despite Hattie’s methodology being beneficial to education.

Good education and education research

There has been a heated discussion on what constitutes “good education” for a long time. Many people think that variables like test scores and graduation rates determine the calibre of education. Others have argued against this and offered a more thorough strategy to consider all factors involved in successful training, saying that these criteria still need to be completed. We can significantly contribute to promoting meaningful education by offering help and support.

For creating crucial instruction and establishing educational practices, education research is crucial. In order to ensure the correctness and dependability of the data, effective organisation and education are required. Researchers must pay special attention to the accuracy of their conclusions, the calibre of their data, and the reliability of their methodologies to achieve this. Data accuracy must be a top focus for researchers (Hattie, 2009). To ensure the validity of their findings, researchers must gather data representative of the group they are investigating and consider any potential bias (Hattie & Yates, 2013). They must assess the data’s accuracy and confirm it from multiple sources to ensure its reliability. Reviews, gatherings, tests, insights, and a variety of other methods can also be used by researchers to collect data.

The investigation’s methodological soundness is the second most important consideration. To achieve this, we must ensure that the data and research techniques have been carefully examined. The necessity to protect participant names and privacy, as well as any potential ethical dilemmas that can occur, should be considered by researchers (McCarthy & Denham, 2018). Additionally, researchers must consider all potential biases, including personal prejudices or ideas that might affect the study’s findings.

Another aspect that researchers should take into consideration is the precision of the outcomes. To do this, scientists should intently examine their information to guarantee that it is dependable and precise and upholds their discoveries (Hattie & Yates, 2013). Specialists ought to likewise be aware of any possible information or approach restrictions and guarantee that these are considered in the review (Awidi et al., 2019). Doing educational research is essential for enhancing the standard of education and guiding in-class instruction. When doing this, researchers should consider the method’s validity, the data’s standard, and the findings’ integrity. By doing the following actions, researchers can make sure their work is reliable and instructive.

Understanding how children learn through the educational process is the initial aim of a good education. This includes examining elements like student involvement, motivation, and learning outcomes. Data from focus groups, surveys, observations, interviews, and other sources must all be gathered by researchers (Wanti et al.,2022). Additionally, contextual elements like school culture and the experiences of students from various backgrounds and ability levels need to be taken into account by researchers. This kind of knowledge aids teachers in creating a welcoming learning environment that accommodates the requirements of all pupils.

Additionally, education’s impact on social and economic outcomes must be examined in research. To do this, analysts should consider what various school systems mean for students’ future encounters (Awidi et al., 2019). This incorporates examining data from concentrates that track students’ instructive encounters after some time as well as data from different sources, like work and pay measurements. These numbers may support teaching strategies that improve students’ long-term success.

Research also requires thinking about the more significant social and political setting of instruction. One part of this is investigating what different instructive practices and guidelines mean for students’ results (Wanti et al.,2022). To accomplish this, researchers must collect data from various sources, including scholarly research, government records, and media coverage (Hattie, 2009). With the utilisation of this sort of data, teachers can acquire a superior comprehension of the likely effects of various strategies and practices on students’ results.

Understanding and developing meaningful education, in general, require education research. For this, specialists should gather various information, including data from reviews, perceptions, meetings, and centre gatherings (Hattie & Yates, 2013). Longitudinal data, contextual factors, and the broader social and political contexts of education must also be investigated by researchers. By doing this, scholastics might give valuable data to coordinate informative practices that improve student execution.

Equity and access to education

Equity and access to education are crucial issues that must be considered when contributing to meaningful education and direct teaching practice. The literature on education research provides essential insight into these two key issues. According to Lengel (2018), providing equal opportunity and access to educational resources to all students, regardless of their backgrounds, races, or financial circumstances, is known as “equity in education.” Lack of equal access to school is one of the critical reasons for educational disparity (Sosu & Bedi, 2018). A fair educational system must consider and address the root causes of educational inequality, such as poverty, racism, and prejudice (Lengel, 2018). For research to effectively contribute to meaningful education and affect teaching practice, it is crucial to comprehend how to eliminate these gaps and how to establish meaningful educational experiences for all students.

When undertaking educational research, equity and accessibility must be considered. The review found that students’ capacity to attend class significantly impacted their creative output (Lengel, 2018). Children from low-income households or impoverished communities may need help to get near enough educational resources and opportunities (Sosu & Bedi, 2018). Regardless of their unique circumstances, every child should have more straightforward access to a top-notch education. Researchers must gather and analyse data from various sources to substantially advance education and successfully direct instructional practice.

This data offers details on the educational experiences of students from diverse origins and locations and information on the availability of educational resources. Additionally, data on student outcomes, including grades and graduation rates, must be gathered by researchers (Awidi et al., 2019). According to Wanti et al. (2022), researchers can use this information to identify discrepancies in educational outcomes and experiences, and they can use this understanding to inform teaching methods and guarantee equal educational opportunities for all children.

When considered, the literature on education research provides important insight into how to successfully support meaningful education and direct teaching practice. Equity and access to education should be considered when undertaking research (Wanti et al.,2022). Researchers must also collect and analyse data from several sources to spot disparities and enhance teaching techniques. Because of Hattie’s research, teachers now approach their everyday activities in the classroom and how they approach their work differently (Sosu & Bedi, 2018). His research has demonstrated the need for data-driven decision-making and evidence-based practices to create an effective learning environment (Wanti et al.,2022). His research has also shown how crucial formative assessment, feedback, and reflection are to good teaching.


In general, education has benefited greatly from the study done by John Hattie and published in Visible Learning. His work offers a research-based method for instructing and learning that can help teachers give their pupils stimulating and useful learning experiences. It is a priceless tool for educators who wish to improve their instructional strategies and help their pupils reach their maximum potential. Critics contend that Hattie’s method is overly dependent on short-term results rather than long-term ones, even though it has proven useful for evaluating the effectiveness of educational practices in the short term. They battle that it overlooks the trouble of the study hall and the method involved with learning and development. Therefore, it is essential to consider long-term outcomes when evaluating the effectiveness of various teaching strategies. Also, research must consider the individual learner, the material, the context, and the communication strategies used to convey the content to inform meaningful education. Educators can create a personalised, content-rich, and engaging learning environment by carefully considering these criteria. By doing this, students will want to readily understand the material and obtain the abilities fundamental for progress.


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Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London, England: Routledge.

Hattie, J., & Yates, G. (2013). Visible learning and the science of how we learn. London, England: Routledge.

Lengel, L. (2018). A review of John Hattie’s visible learning theory. International Journal of Research in Education, 1(1), 1-5.

McCarthy, T., & Denham, S. (2018). A review of John Hattie’s visible learning theory and its implications for classroom practice. International Journal of Research in Education, 1(1), 6-12.

O’Connor, P. (2020). Visible learning and whole language: revisiting the garbage in, garbage out problem. The Australian Journal of Language and Literacy43(2), 141-151.

Sosu, E., & Bedi, A. (2018). Equity and access to education: A review of literature. International Journal of Research in Education, 1(1), 13-22.

Tucker, B. (2015). John Hattie’s “visible learning”: A meta-analysis of research on teaching. The Clearing House, 88(5), 199-203.

Von Glasersfeld, E. (1995). A constructivist approach to teaching. In P.K. Smith (Ed.), Constructivism in education (pp. 3-17). London, England: Routledge.

Wanti, M., Wesselink, R., Biemans, H., & Brok, P. D. (2022). Determining factors of access and equity in higher education: A systematic review. Equity in Education & Society1(2), 279-296.


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