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Inclusivity in the Classroom

Providing all learners with resources to flexible learning options and successful routes to achieve educational objectives in environments where they feel a sense of belonging is at the heart of inclusive learning practices. Children from all backgrounds, in spite of ability or handicap, study alongside one another in similar age-appropriate classroom in an inclusive instructional setting (Petriwskyj, 2010). All families and children are regarded equally, and they all deserve equal access to the same possibilities, according to the philosophy behind it. There are certain concerns that arise from creating an all-inclusive classroom especially for young learners (Petriwskyj, 2010). When educators just getting started with inclusion, the initial few steps may seem the most difficult. Teachers may encounter a number of roadblocks along the way, ranging from employee skepticism to a general lack of available time.

The notion of having classes that include both kids with special needs and learners who are developing normally is becoming more popular among educators (Park et al., 2018). A special education instructor will face unique obstacles as a result of this form of schooling. For example, many learners who do not have impairments are not used to interacting with individuals who do have difficulties. It is the teachers’ responsibility to ensure that cruelty and insensitivity are not tolerated among their pupils and that individuals who have developmental disabilities are treated with dignity (Park et al., 2018). Teachers’ inability to teach inclusively is another major concern. Teachers are the most important actors in the effective implementation of inclusive education. Insufficient competence, appropriate knowledge, and educational credentials are present among instructors, all of which are essential in order for them to achieve the specified goal (Park et al., 2018). Negative perceptions of teachers and parents are also an area of concern. Negative attitudes of teachers and parents towards children with disabilities, differently abled children, and disenfranchised children is also a big concern in inclusive education settings, particularly in urban areas (Park et al., 2018). Lastly, inadequate and unsustainable infrastructure is a major issue that prevents most educators from realizing the vision of inclusive education in schools.

There are however different strategies that can be incorporated into the learning environment in order to come up with an inclusive classroom. First educators need to incorporate universal design approaches to create and inclusive classroom. A collection of concepts known as Universal Design for Learning (UDL) was developed out of a desire to provide every student with an equal chance to study (Katz & Sokal, 2016). It is founded on the premise that every individual has their own different and unique learning style. There are three basic brain networks that are involved in how a student learns, the recognition network, the strategy network, and the emotional network (Katz & Sokal, 2016). With this strategy, educators need to choose a single lesson or activity and see how successful they are with it and then expand their scope and look at other elements of your curriculum (Katz & Sokal, 2016).

The second strategy is to develop a plan for behaviour management. Disruptive classroom conduct may have a negative impact on not just the instructor, but also on the other kids in the classroom (Lindsay et al., 2014). Creating a behavior management plan will assist teachers in preparing for the inevitable time when a student or students display disruptive behaviors while keeping in mind that certain behaviors are much less serious compared to others. for instance, talking out of turn vs. being aggressive or defiant. The behavior program should be discussed with parents to ensure that everyone understands the expectations and the consequences for failing to meet them (Lindsay et al., 2014). Lastly, to create a more inclusive classroom, the teacher should get to know the parents and students and let them get to know the teacher as well. By allowing learners to share their interests, difficulties, and goals with the teacher and by the teacher sharing theirs with them, you may establish a relationship that can continue to develop (Lindsay et al., 2014).

Needs of Judy

Judy has a learning disability. She is very intelligent and creative but she struggles to tell a sequence story. She needs guidance to read words and write letters. The first educational need of Judy is learning because she has trouble with sequential information which can be attributed to poor visual spatial processing. Memory is another learning need for Judy because she needs assistance in writing letters and words. Thinking is the other educational need that Judy has because she has trouble reading words. Some of her social needs are self-awareness and self-confidence. For children with learning difficulties, self-awareness (knowledge of one’s own strengths, shortcomings, and specific capabilities) and self-confidence are very crucial factors to consider. Children who have difficulties in the school may begin to mistrust their talents and question their capabilities. Judy is intelligent and creative and there is need to build on that.

Needs of Peter

Peter is autistic and has no interest in learning or interacting with others. One of his educational needs is perception. This is because he has poor social interactions and does not show any interest in exploring his environment. Peter also needs motor skills. This is because he has a delay in movement. In addition, Autistic children have difficulty with motor skills, which may make it harder for them to perform well with handwriting activities since they may have problems gripping a pencil. Peter also needs sensory perception. He has delayed social interactions and does not play with his peers. Peter also needs social skills. He does not engage with his peers or withy his environment. Children with autism spectrum disorders tend to prefer to undertake things by themselves, which causes them to become isolated and restricts their possibilities to engage with other pupils.

Learning Goals


The student should be able to:

  • Read and write the alphabet.
  • Read and write short words like cat, dog, rat etc.
  • Read sequentially.
  • Recall words such as the days of the week in sequence.
  • Recite numbers sequentially from 1 to 10.


  • Academic: The student will gain new abilities, such as the ability to add and subtract.
  • Interaction with peers during group activities: The child will learn acceptable play skills, such as engaging with classmates in group activities.
  • Behaviour: The kid will learn new coping methods, such as seeking assistance and substituting socially unacceptable behaviors for problem behaviors such as screaming or slapping, among other things.
  • Motor: The youngster will practice ADL skills or handwriting in order to aid their academic growth.

Teaching plan

Theme of the session:  Building on existing abilities
Subject/Area of learning: Writing

Motor skills

Time for this session: 20 minutes
Grade level: K2
No. of student included:  2

Learning objective(s):

By the end of the lesson;

  1. Judy should be able to write numbers 1 to 10 in correct sequence.
  2. Judy should be able to recall the numbers sequentially at least up to 5.
  3. Peter should be able to improve his motor skills.
  4. Peter should be able to hold his pencil better.
  5. Peter should be able to improve his handwriting.


Activity duration Content

(activity content and procedure)

Materials required
 20 minutes Number writing

First Judy can focus on the numbers in the number book. Judy will pronounce the number and then embellish it with colored pencils. She can multicolor the number in many colors or even embellish it with glitter or sparkles. The more enjoyable and engaging the learning experience, the more likely she will remember.

Next is the writing practice. Judy may work on her number tracing skills. Here, she gets the chance to write the numbers correctly on her own.

Showing the number. Judy will use dots or stickers to indicate the number in the ten-frame frame. With practice, she will be able to detect the numbers inside the frame of ten without having to count them out loud.

Presentation. After Judy has traced the number word, she will color the stars to represent the numbers 1 through ten. When she reaches that amount, she will demonstrate it by sketching items in the box.

Number chat

Number books

Colored pencils


Glitter pens

 20 minutes Motor skills, handwriting

Getting peters attention. First tape the large piece of paper on the wall at peters eye level to catch his attention. Ask him if he prefers to sit or stand.

Do some pre writing activities with different colors to show peter how fun it is to write.

Draw different shapes and lines with different colors on the paper and encourage peter to do the same.

Encourage peter to copy the lines and shapes I draw by providing him with some visual hints. In this lesson, peter will learn the fundamental notion of making deliberate motions with a writing instrument and setting a goal for the lines that he draws.

Draw up some shapes and lines and let peter trace them on his own.

Large piece of paper

Colored pencils



Visual cues

Anticipated problem and solution:

Judy may get carried away with the drawing and coloring and forget to focus on the numbers and the main objective of recalling the numbers. This can be solved by constantly reminding her to recite the numbers so that she does not focus only on decorating.

Peter may lose interest in writing because he has difficulty engaging with his environment. This can be remedies by constantly encouraging him and congratulating him when he does it correctly. This will increase his interest in the learning activity.


Park, M. H., Dimitrov, D. M., & Park, D. Y. (2018). Effects of background variables of early childhood teachers on their concerns about inclusion: The mediation role of confidence in teaching. Journal of Research in Childhood Education32(2), 165-180.

Petriwskyj, A. (2010). Diversity and inclusion in the early years. International Journal of Inclusive Education14(2), 195-212.

Lindsay, S., Proulx, M., Scott, H., & Thomson, N. (2014). Exploring teachers’ strategies for including children with autism spectrum disorder in mainstream classrooms. International Journal of Inclusive Education18(2), 101-122.

Katz, J., & Sokal, L. (2016). Universal design for learning as a bridge to inclusion: A qualitative report of student voices. International Journal of Whole Schooling12(2), 36-63.


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