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Improving Aviation Safety (PLG1)


After the Flight 2196 incident, the NTSB immediately made an investigation involving a multidisciplinary team of specialists to study the occurrence determining factors and chain of events. By using radar data and flight recorder data, together with all the information received through air traffic control communications, the investigative panel attempted to decipher what conditions gave rise to this near miss. First, the poor weather conditions, including bad visibility and low clouds, turn out to play a considerable role in the misalignment between the plane and the runway. The METAR report at the time of the event showed IMC; visibility is limited and overcast at KATL.

Findings and Analysis

The NTSB conducted the analysis of the Flight 2196 case, making it possible to examine a mosaic of motifs representing the numerous causes that brought the inconsistency between the plane and the should-be airport (NTSB, 2024). The preliminary verification stage reveals the fragile interface of appalling weather conditions and decision-making operations, emphasizing the challenges crews and air traffic controllers encounter during critical phases of flight. The investigative teams are striving to retrace the events preceding the incident via painstaking analysis of the radar data, flight recorder data, and air traffic control communications. Supplementary analysis of meteorological data shows that instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) are present at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (KATL), which has poor visibility and a shallow ceiling. The challenging weather conditions in question were likely to have magnified the challenges of the approach and landing procedures, increasing the need for heightened alertness and awareness on the flight crew’s part.

In addition, the analysis delves into the human factors and crew performance elements of the incident, which is the command and control of the crew, which highly influences safe air transport operations. With a particular focus on how the crew communicates, how they manage their workload, and how they adhere to the standard operating procedures, the NTSB aims to discover possible errors in crew coordination and methods to prevent those errors. The analysis also takes into account the organizational factors and the systemic vulnerabilities in the wider aviation environment, realizing that risk management and safety enhancement strategies require early action. As far as technical, human, and organizational aspects are considered, the NTSBF is aimed at identifying the actionable insight that will pave the way for safety recommendations and industry-wide reforms. This unwillingness to compromise in the analytical sphere is the true reflection of the underlying NTSB’s approach towards accountability, transparency, and perpetually increasing aerial safety standards.

The Role of SMS and NTSB in Accident Prevention

The building of Safety Management Systems (SMS) is another formative element in the pursuit of total safety perfection in the aviation industry. It allows aviation stakeholders to promote safety awareness and a responsibility approach that goes far beyond requirements. SMS integrates the concepts of risk management into operation such that potential threats can be identified when still small so that they can be curbed before they escalate to safety incidents or accidents (Federal Aviation Administration, 2021). SMS guarantees the culture notional with regard to safety; that is to say, all professionals involved in aviation always communicate their concerns, share their knowledge, and work with ideas towards solving problems collectively. There are two foundations on which SMS is built; these are continuous improvement programs as well as solid risk assessment mechanisms, and they are not just regulation-based.

In the interim, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is the governing body charged with the authority to enhance safety oversight and propel industry-wide improvements in safety standards and operational practices (National et al.). The NTSB, as the leading investigative authority responsible for determining the probable cause of aviation accidents and incidents, is a basis for safety oversight. The NTSB clearly demonstrates the systemic weaknesses and operational deficiencies in the aviation industry through its multipronged investigations and detailed reports. Based on the experience gained from previous cases, the NTSB develops targeted safety recommendations designed to eliminate the underlying causes of accidents and prevent the recurrence of similar events. As such, the advocacy of the NTSB for safety upgrades and reforms of regulations confirms the organization’s responsibility to preserve the life and integrity of the aviation system.

The efforts of SMS and the NTSB to collaborate present a case of the aviation industry’s incessant demand to innovate to become safer. SMS and NTSB complement each other’s efforts by harnessing synergetic attributes to reduce risks and safeguard lives within the aviation domain. With SMS and NTSB providing evidence-based analysis, proactive risk management strategies, and the development of a safety focus culture, SMS and the NTSB support passenger, crewmember, and community safety in the aviation industry both on the ground and in the air. The unification of stakeholders in the aviation industry in their pursuit of safety excellence underscores their desire to maintain safety, reliability, and integrity in air transport.


In conclusion, the cooperation of the two systems, Safety Management Systems (SMS) and NTSB oversight serves as the pillar of the aviation industry’s drive toward the pursuit of ideal safety standards aimed at preventing accidents. SMS enables aviation stakeholders to act preemptively in risk identification, analysis, and mitigation, whereby a safety consciousness culture prevails over merely complying with regulatory measures. At the same time, the investigative power and unbiased analysis of the NTSB provide the cornerstones of safety oversight, creating economies of scale in raising safety standards and procedures industry-wide. As a result of the joint endeavor, SMS and the NTSB demonstrate the willingness of the aviation sector to enhance and drive for security innovativeness, manage risks, and safeguard lives. Aviation stakeholders rallying to this common goal of safety excellence pay respect to the profound sacrificial duty of virtuous safety, dependability, and honesty in global air travel. If the aviation industry adopts a holistic method for the management and prevention of risks, plus a culture of continuous improvement, it will enable the entities in the industry to avert risks, grow the level of operational resilience, and protect the safety of passengers, crews, and communities all over the world. The interaction between SMS and the NTSB reflects a joint attempt towards safety superiority and continuous improvement, symbolizing that the pole remains a phenomenon of security and refuge for air.


Federal Aviation Administration. (2021, November 17). Safety management system | Federal aviation administration.

National Transportation Safety Board. (n.d.). What is the National Transportation Safety Board? Retrieved from

NTSB. (2024). Atlanta Approach Incident. Home.


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