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Global Initiatives To Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

Anti-microbial resistance (Antimicrobial Resistance) is one of the disturbing issues affecting nursing. AMR refers to the ability of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites to evolve and resist the effect of medications such as antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs (Mudenda et al., 2023). AMR is a global pandemic that when left unaddressed for long becomes difficult or impossible to treat patients thus leading to increased mortality and morbidity. The medication cost of treating AMR not only hurt individual nations but also the global economy. Some of the causes of AMR include antimicrobial abuse and misuse and environmental factors (Iwu & Patrick, 2021) The purpose of this assignment focuses on global initiatives and drivers to mitigate the escalating rates of AMR.

Global Action Plan

The Global Action Plan (GAP) was conceptualized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015 in partnership with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to tackle AMR in a ‘One Health’ approach (World Health Organization, 2021). Leaders from these institutions pledged to establish multi-sectoral national action plans (NAPs) regarding AMR mitigation for their respective countries. The GAP aims to implement comprehensive and structured programs that encourage prudent use of antibiotics, lessen the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in people, animals, and the environment, and enhance awareness of AMR via effective communication and education. Mudenda et al. (2023) assert that antimicrobial programs focus on promoting the best possible antimicrobial therapy selection, dosage, frequency, and duration that results in the best possible clinical outcome for infection prevention or treatment, with minimal to no patient toxicity and a decrease in antimicrobial resistance. Also, systems of surveillance and continuous research on AMR are essential for keeping an eye on AMR in humans, animals, and the environment. For this reason, international cooperation parties working in the fields of agriculture, the environment, human health, and animal health are required to monitor AMR, conduct additional research, educate and train healthcare practitioners, and develop strategies to stop AMR (World Health Organization, 2021).

Impact of Global Action Plan

Collaborations with different nations have shown a greater impact in cutting low incidences of AMR and educating individuals about the most effective ways of handling antimicrobial drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles stand in the way of developing and putting into practice AMR prevention methods. Some nations are still facing difficulties combating this silent pandemic. Majumder et al. (2020) argue these challenges include a lack of AMR-related human resources, financial difficulties, a lack of data sharing AMR surveillance, a lack of awareness and knowledge of AMR, a lack of resources for disease diagnostics, behavioural problems with the prescription, dispensing, and use of antibiotics, a lack of capacity building, and an ineffective Antimicrobial Stewardship programs (AMS). GAP on AMR has the most impact and offers a framework for keeping an eye on and resolving the problem globally (Pulingam et al., 2022). These coordinated cooperative initiatives promote knowledge exchange, resource allocation, and capacity building, empowering nations to cooperate globally for efficient AMR prevention, surveillance, and control.

The Importance of the Global Action Plan

The use of GAP as a global initiative has a broad range of importance. GAP aims to raise awareness and comprehension of AMR via efficient training, education, and communication (Iwu & Patrick, 2021). The objective is to lower the risk of illness by implementing good hygiene, sanitation, and infection control practices. Further importance includes the use of research and observation to reinforce the body of knowledge and evidence, to maximize the application of antibiotics for both human and animal health, and to strengthen the argument economically for sustainable investment that considers the needs of all nations and to boost spending on new treatments, diagnostic equipment, vaccines, and other interventions (Majumder et al., 2020).


The Global Action Plan for Antimicrobial Resistance stands as a crucial international initiative to address the escalating threat of AMR. By fostering collaborations across nations, GAP emphasizes comprehensive programs promoting prudent antimicrobial use and surveillance. Despite challenges faced by some nations, the GAP has demonstrated impactful outcomes in reducing AMR incidences. GAP’s importance lies in raising awareness, implementing preventive measures, and advocating a holistic “ONE HEALTH” approach offering a framework for global cooperation to effectively combat this silent pandemic and safeguard public health.


Iwu, C. D., & Patrick, S. M. (2021). An insight into the implementation of the global action plan on antimicrobial resistance in the WHO African region: A roadmap for action. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents58(4), 106411.

Majumder, M. A., Rahman, S., Cohall, D., Bharatha, A., Singh, K., Haque, M., & Gittens-St Hilaire, M. (2020). Antimicrobial stewardship: Fighting antimicrobial resistance and protecting global public health. Infection and Drug Resistance13, 4713-4738.

Mudenda, S., Chabalenge, B., Daka, V., Mfune, R. L., Salachi, K. I., Mohamed, S., Mufwambi, W., Kasanga, M., & Matafwali, S. K. (2023). Global strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance: A one health perspective. Pharmacology & Pharmacy14(08), 271-328.

Pulingam, T., Parumasivam, T., Gazzali, A. M., Sulaiman, A. M., Chee, J. Y., Lakshmanan, M., … & Sudesh, K. (2022). Antimicrobial resistance: Prevalence, economic burden, mechanisms of resistance and strategies to overcome. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences170, 106103.

World Health Organization. (2021). Antimicrobial resistance and the United Nations sustainable development cooperation framework: Guidance for United Nations Country teams. World Health Organization.


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