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Experimental and Numerical Simulation of Interaction Between Out-of-Phase Double Cavitation Bubbles and Rigid Walls


By using boundary integral approach, a computational model that accounts for the interactions between out-of-phase double cavitation and stiff walls is proposed in this document (BEM). On the surface near a stiff wall that is 30 degrees to vertical, bubbles as well as the free surface interact. From two perspectives, the investigation will be done. A dimensionless distance parameter, h expressing the distances between both the original bubble as well as the vertical plane intersecting with free surface and the stiff wall, will be used to investigate the bubble location. A variation in the elevation of the free surface is discovered to be dependent on h for large-scale bubbles bursting and forming two liquid jets. When h is small, the free surface would be anticipated to reach its maximum height on the hard wall, whereas the maximum arises far above bubble with larger values. The free surface’s altitude just above bubbles is expected to increase consistently whenever the actual impact of the bubbles’ scale is relatively large, while it tends to increase and then reduces whenever the influence of the bubbles’ scale is comparatively small. This study will also simulate the bubbles and unrestricted surface’s behavior under different bubbles’ scales.


When the local pressure falls below a threshold number, vapors or gas voids (cavitation bubbles) develop, grow, and collapse in the liquid, a process known as cavitation occurs. The growth of the cavitation bubble has been studied extensively over the past few decades, yet key mechanisms, such as temperature decreases and multi-bubble interactions, remain a mystery [4]. In the experiments, high energy was released instantly at a specific moment in the liquid state to stimulate the cavitation bubble as well as high-speed photography was employed to capture the interface evolution.

Numerous experiments have been carried out to better understand the cavitation bubbles collapse close to stiff walls, including studies of the development of the bubbles, the production of micro-jets, and also the interactions between air bubbles and solid particles in the bubbles. Using trials, Chahine16 found that drag-reducing polymers have decreased the cavitation bubble’s duration. In addition, Kucherenko and Shamko17 conducted experiments on the bubbles formed whenever the difference between adjacent parallel hard walls was reduced, and they discovered the creation of a dumbbell- or cone-shaped bubble [6]. It has also been shown that asymptotic theory16,18 partially described the continuous change of bubbles interacting with parallel walls when the gap is significant enough.

Both experimental and computational methods were used by Ishida19 to investigate cavitation bubbles dynamics in the tight space. He noticed that the inclination of bubble inducement varied when the space between the two parallel walls varied. Shock waves and micro-jets can be linked to the proportion of the bubbles’ maximum diameters to the space between the parallel stiff wall, as researched by Ogasawara20. The progression of the heaviness and velocity grounds adjoining the cavitation bubbles may be detected by tests, however it is difficult to record this process under a variety of irregular situations.

CFD has become a significant technique for studying the evolution of cavitation bubbles as a result of advances in computer technology. The CFD approach can offer more detailed flow field characteristics and consequently a more thorough knowledge of the fluid mechanics in cavitation. The development of the cavitation bubbles amid complicated boundary constraints and harsh environmental conditions may be further studied using numerical simulations [2]. It has remained a sizzling topic in bubble subtleties because of its importance and widespread use in submerged blasts, ultrasonic debridement, ocean expeditions, and cavitation erosions.

Phenomena such as the high speed liquid jet in addition to cavitation regions beneath unrestricted surface have been studied extensively by pioneers. A single free surface is often studied here, although the surrounding structure is rarely taken into account by researchers. The bubble as well as the free surface’s conduct would be significantly altered if the surrounding structure were not there, but this is not always possible [3]. This interaction between bubble and structure is what removes impurities in ultrasonic cleaning, and it is also what causes damage to structures in military fields; in ocean investigation, the vessels significantly affect the signal of air guns, and this interaction is also what causes damage to structures in ultrasonic cleaning.

Because three-dimensional simulations take too long, researchers have turned to the Finite Volume Method to model the interactions in between bubbles and a rigid wall. However, these investigations have focused on axially symmetrical systems instead [4]. This research uses a numerical technique that is both fast and effective (boundary element method, called BEM). Recent decades have seen a flurry of BEM research. Studying bubble properties and water pike behavior in Refs., Blake found that liquid jets direct away from free surfaces with evident downward transitions of bubbles in motion.

As well as in a wide range of literary genres. In terms of the rigid structure’s influence, the liquid jet’s effect on the water amongst both the bubbles and also the rigid wall has been extensively examined and evaluated due to the rigid wall’s presence [5]. However, there are just a few research on the subject of a free surface and a hard wall. For marine engineering, just like submerged blasts and air rifle prospects, such incidents are rather prevalent. To hit the hull, underwater explosions are used in military applications. Since of this, the structure’s impact on the bubble’s complexities and free surface behavior cannot be disregarded.

The structure’s impact can also affect the load on other fields because it is in touch with the free surface. Prospect vessels have no effect on air gun prospecting, as they interfere with the compression waves are formed by the large-scale bubble pulsation [1]. The appropriate stress signal is extremely important for discovering seabed resources, so it seems necessary for researchers to understand how the bubble interacts with the rigid wall and free surface. In addition, stiff walls are frequent in ultrasonic cleanings as well as cavitation degradations, among other uses. Only by thoroughly comprehending the underlying mechanics will we be able to maximize the potential of the applications.

Problems arise whenever the rigid wall hits the free surface when trying to use BEM to represent the dynamic characteristics of bubbles beneath a rigid wall as well as a rigid surface. It is a difficult task to deal with the contact between the wall and the free surface. The organization of the literature has been an important consideration in certain recent research. The fluid-structure interaction is coded using the ‘double node approach’. Indeed, it is educational for our projects. By using a solid wall that is perpendicular to an original free surface, as well as a faraway bubble, the loose surface’s movement is not clearly discernible in Liu and Zhang’s research. Using the mirror technique, they studied those instances where the rigid wall’s angle of inclination is within 10 °, and they found a bulge nearer to the rigid wall in addition to a trough nearer to a tumbling dividing line. However, for greater predisposition, the experiments are not performed and the assessment upon that free surface is just qualitative. Consequently, the interaction must be studied at a greater tilt of the stiff wall and a lesser depth in the bubble.


  1. To simulate the characteristics of the out of phase double cavitation bubbles close to rigid walls.
  2. To find out the influence between the bubbles and the unrestricted surface close to a rigid wall.
  3. To experiment the effect of double cavitation bubbles positions, close to rigid walls.


Cavitation in the water on the floor of a water-filled container can lead to cracks in the bottle’s wall if the bottle’s cap is struck. Acceleration-induced cavitation differs from the usual cavitation number-governed cavitation that is caused by fluid momentum. It has been shown that Ca, the new cavitation number proposed by Pan et al., may serve as a generic cavitation threshold for acceleration-induced cavitation [2]. The jetting process of a bubble affected by a blast wave has also been investigated by numerous academics, and these studies have shown the jetting technique of the bubble. Cavitation under impact has been well studied, and the shock wave’s effect on a bubble has been well documented, but little is known about how gas and liquid interact in a bottle when subjected to mechanical contact.

There are a number of applications where bubble dynamics under shock loading circumstances must be accurately described and predicted for pipe flow as well as tissue destruction on or after blasting or impact disclosures. Understanding how gas and liquid interact in a container under an impact stress is very critical.

The dynamic response of the cavitation bubbles has been numerically described using a variety of approaches, including the frontier element technique, the level-set technique, the Eulerian finite component technique, in addition to the volume of fluid (VOF) method [6]. Aside from the VOF approach, Koukouvinis utilized it to analyze bubble aspheric collapse. A further important example is the study [4] in which the VOF approach was utilized to replicate the near-wall bubbles collapse in an acoustic environment. This work employed the VOF and vibrant mesh approach to investigate the expansion as well as collapse of cavitation under mechanical contact, taking into consideration the features of acceleration-induced cavitation. Afterwards, pressure waves are generated and propagated.

An EPFL team suggested a non-dimensional scaling rule for defining the creation of bubble jets, in which a non – dimensional quantity was employed to quantify asymmetry in the collapsing process [5]. Conventional CFD approaches for studying cavitation bubble evolution rely on discretization of the Rayleigh–Plesset equation by means of the boundary element method as well as boundary element method is proposed based upon that Navier–Stokes (N–S) and Rayleigh–Plesset equations. Micro-jet, shockwave wave, hot temperatures, cavitation, as well as cavitation noise may all be studied using these techniques. The classic numerical simulation approaches for cavitation bubbles may be split into three types based on various assumptions about cavitation bubbles.

As a preliminary step, a mathematical analysis of the mass and transfer equations is often used to determine how much mass is exchanged between the gas and liquid phases [4]. Tracking methods such as the volumes of fluid (VOF) and also the level-set approach can also be used to rebuild the gas–liquid interface. Both mechanics and thermodynamics equilibrium are considered for the two-phase cavitation process of this category [2]. The equations (EOS) under dynamic equilibrium and thermodynamics consistency governs the transition from the vapor phase to the fluid phase. To determine the connection amongst density, pressures, and temperature, the equations is employed, as well as the compressibility of the fluid.

The lattice Boltzmann technique (LBM) is a mesoscopic technique that uses the Boltzmann mechanisms theory to acquire the full flow field. For complicated boundary conditions, the lattice Boltzmann approach is superior to standard macroscopic CFD methods that rely on the N–S equations because it is more computationally efficient and flexible. It also allows for direct calculation of such equation of state. The Shan–Chen pseudo-potential concept is the basis for the majority of cavitation bubble computations. This model uses the pseudo-potential amongst molecular particles to automatically produce the liquid–gas interface, eliminating the requirement for capturing the interface. Two-dimensional LBM models were used by Mishra [2] to simulate the formation and rupture of cavitation bubbles. In order to model the double cavitation bubbles near a rigid wall, Shan46 made the two-dimensional model three-dimensional.

Most recent simulation studies of cavitation processes with complicated topography using LBM are predicated on two-dimensional frameworks. Cavitation bubbles at stiff boundaries are an important issue in the field of bubble mechanics since the enormous pressure and velocity generated by a bubble may cause major harm to the surface of the material. For surface processing, several researchers have attempted to exploit the cavitation phenomenon. Compressive residual stress can be instigated by the breakdown of cavitation bubbles. Thus, material qualities like fatigue resistance and abrasion resistance are enhanced. Rayleigh-Preset equation may be used to explain the bubble rupture in infinite water as a spherical shape. In other cases, however, the bubble collapse at the boundary is asymmetric, resulting in a liquid jet.

The boundary’s physical features determine the collapse’s characteristics. Bubble collapse at a stiff barrier causes the liquid jet to be accelerated and steered toward the boundary, resulting in longer collapse periods. On the contrary, the liquid jet is diverted from the boundary in the event of a breakdown near the free surface. To study the dynamics of cavitation bubbles, an experimental facility is used, such as a laser-induced and acoustically created cavitation bubbles [4]. Many different numerical approaches have been used to model bubble dynamics. Nevertheless, it was difficult to mimic because of the significant displacement of the bubbles as during the collapse. approaches such as the finite volume technique, finite element technique, and finite differential technique. Because the bubbles interface movement releases and resets the computation mesh near the bubbles.


Rayleigh’s equation provides an approximation to the double cavitation bubble collapse in infinite water. The liquid is incompressible and has no viscosity, and there is a constant liquid pressure inside the bubbles. Based on the theory of potentials [11, 21], the speed potential meets the requirements of the Laplace equation. Boundary elements are discretized using the border integrate equation (BEM) as follows:

On the equation, denotes the velocity potential, and is the bearing coefficient. The surface of a discrete – time element is given by ds, where ds is the discretized element’s area multiplied by r. It is assumed that the initial bubble’s hydrostatic pressure p and fluid density will be used as the reference lengths and pressures for all subsequent calculations, so that the results may be applied to any system. The molecular formula Rm=3.38[W/(H+10)]1/3 may be used to calculate Rm for 2, 4, 6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives (W is the mass of the blast, and H is the original depth). It is possible to derive the reference time t*=Rm(/p)1/2 from these three fundamental feature values. When we’re dealing with the bubble, stiff wall, and free surface all need to meet Bernoulli equation requirements.

An adiabatic assumption is made in this study, and we use that assumption to give us an equation for gaseous pressure. We utilize structured grids in the regular region along the intersection of both the free surface as well as the stiff wall, and unstructured grids in the remainder of the space. We use Zhang and Liu [4]’s work to ensure that the quality of models during simulations. There is a 120-degree angle between the stiff wall and the free area. A wider angle would generate extremely significant numerical instabilities if the free surface’s performance were to be excessively violent, and this is outside the scope of this paper. As indicated in the introduction, prior researchers used computational and experimental approaches to investigate smaller angles.

Using this theory, this methodology can compute the bubble’s form, as well as the wall’s rigidity and the free surface. In potential flow theory, the “indirect boundary element approach” is a well-established method for calculating flow field pressure and velocity. Bubble as well as free surface dynamics are the primary focus of this model. To begin the computation, the technique will first redistribute the calculation points uniformly throughout the bubble, which contains both the free surface and the hard wall, and then choose the locations in the water outside of the bubble to be used in the calculation itself. Specifically, this research is going to reference Liu’s work. Endpoints at the liquid interface must have velocities that fulfill the rigid wall as well as free surface boundaries criteria at the same time. Here, the double-node approach is used to solve the issue, as follows: There are two types of nodes on the interface, hence the equation (1) may be discretized by treating each node as a distinct node. The formulation is as follows:

The endpoints in the free surface, the stiff wall, the interface considered to have been on the free surface, as well as the interface considered to be on the wall are represented by the letters f, w, jf, jw. The normal velocity is represented by $fracpartial varphi partial n$, while the velocity potential is represented by. Despite the fact that the endpoints in the interfaces are divided into two halves, their locations as well as velocity potential are same. As a result, the second and third rows in the two matrices above are identical. The expression could be translated by removing the 3rd row of the 2 matrices and then adding the second number to column 3 just on right matrices.

Milestones Timeline

2 Months Proposal Write-up
4 Months Planning on Deliverables:

  1. Project Plan
  2. Resource Plan
  3. Tools and Equipment
  4. Goals and Performance Measure
  5. Work Flows
  6. Anticipated Risk
  7. Background Study
6 Months Initiation


Data Collection

Data Analysis

Data Presentation

2 Months Control and Monitoring:

  1. Updating the Project
  2. Modifications
  3. Necessary follow ups
4 Months Report Writing


The interactions involving out of synchronization double cavitation bubbles as well as stiff walls with a specified inclination angle will be simulated using BEM in this research. Calculation simulation, such as field pressure in addition to velocity distributions, and the height of the unrestricted surface, might provide useful information: Two compression differences overhead and underneath the cavitation bubbles form 2 liquid jets in large-scale bubbles, but just one liquid jet in tiny bubbles. At different h, we show the alteration in two top statures of an unrestricted surface by regard to time. The elevation of the surface on the stiff wall should be higher than the water despair (at least h1.1 for our investigation). The elevation of a free surface to the stiff wall should decline at h1.15, so it is lower than the actual water doom at this point.

This study shall discover that significant double cavitation bubbles possess a higher influence on free surfaces, which is primarily represented in the level of the aquatic doom, by investigating the interactions with multiple gauges of bubbles. The elevation of the water doom induced by significant bubbles would partake a value that is higher as well as a slower decreasing swiftness after the dimensionless duration is more than roughly 0.4. Three case studies will focus to validate the application of this framework to bubble phenomena approaching the free surface or rigid barrier. The results showed that now the bubbles disintegration time achieved by the current model closely matched Rayleigh’s theoretical model prediction. The influence of the border on the lengthening and decreasing of the bubbles breakdown time was also explored.


Osterman, A., Dular, M., & Sirok, B. (2009). Numerical simulation of a near-wall bubble collapse in an ultrasonic field. Journal of Fluid Science and Technology4(1), 210-221.

Brujan, E. A., Noda, T., Ishigami, A., Ogasawara, T., & Takahira, H. (2018). Dynamics of laser-induced cavitation bubbles near two perpendicular rigid walls. Journal of Fluid Mechanics841, 28-49.

Li, S., Zhang, A. M., Han, R., & Liu, Y. Q. (2017). Experimental and numerical study on bubble-sphere interaction near a rigid wall. Physics of Fluids29(9), 092102.

Dular, M., Bachert, R., Stoffel, B., & Širok, B. (2005). Experimental evaluation of numerical simulation of cavitating flow around hydrofoil. European Journal of Mechanics-B/Fluids24(4), 522-538.

Koukouvinis, P., Gavaises, M., Supponen, O., & Farhat, M. (2016). Numerical simulation of a collapsing bubble subject to gravity. Physics of Fluids28(3), 032110.

Sagar, H. J., & el Moctar, O. (2018). Numerical simulation of a laser-induced cavitation bubble near a solid boundary considering phase change. Ship Technology Research65(3), 163-179.

Phan, T. H., Ha, C. T., & Park, W. G. (2018). Numerical simulation of bubble collapse between two parallel walls and saturated film boiling on a sphere. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer127, 116-125.


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