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Early Childhood Pedagogical and Curricula Methodology: A Comparison of the English Foundation Stage Curriculum, Te Wha”riki and Reggio Emilia


This paper compares and contrasts three different early childhood approaches and curricula. We chose these specific examples to categorize, contrast, and compare particular beliefs, visions, and concepts about kids regarding these various early childhood pedagogy and curricula approaches. We’ll look at how we can incorporate diverse childhood dreams into these education programs during our exploration and discussion. Instrumental curriculum views emphasize the curriculum’s service to an external and extrinsic purpose; for example, consider the production of citizens who will help society. This is in contrast to the belief that the educational plan should aid the intrinsic goal of providing value in and of itself so that it is self-fulfilling and provides valuable experiences. The instrumental curriculum perspective includes vocational as a subset. Supporters of this viewpoint believe that the curriculum should be designed to prepare children for employment. The views have arisen in terms of the goals and approaches; curricula discussed in this study can be categorized into a continuum. On the one hand, there are pragmatic educational plan perspectives that value the individual child and respect for adult authority. On the other hand, instrumental and vocational views of education emphasize the individual’s power over the child and the welfare of society instead of the person.

The Rise of Instrumental Viewpoints and Progressive Ideals

While there is an assortment of progressive educational curriculum viewpoints, they are entirely set apart by a decrease of the association of power and a lessening of the educator’s position, so the teacher is frequently considered a facilitator rather than a regulator of educational program exercises. They likewise place a solid accentuation on the singular kid as the point of convergence of all educational plan exercises. In the most recent two centuries, moderate and child-focused educational programs have impacted early childhood education programs. Rousseau’s underlying impact affected later progressivists like Montessori in Europe, Robert Owen, Froebel, Pestalozzi, and Dewey in the United States. Rousseau’s dynamic educational plan thoughts underscored that youngsters ought to be permitted to realize what they need when they’re prepared. That play should upgrade by nonintrusive direction from an educator/facilitator. Froebel, who fostered his thoughts in the mid-1800s, is credited with imagining an early educational program’s teaching method and practice, just as being quick to perceive play as a significant part.

Through the impact of John Dewey and different teachers, for example, Stanley Hall, moderate ideas of early Childhoods education had come to be characterized by a concept like the vital place of play and development, and the grown-up as facilitator and guide by the twentieth century. These teachers’ endeavors prompted a more prominent accentuation on the need to appreciate and examine understudies’ encounters with the educational curriculum. Froebel accepted that a child has a “divine quintessence” that should be supported and secured rather than interfered with. Hall and others in the child concentrate on development took advantage of this private idea and focused on the child. They pushed for an educational program that zeroed in on the child’s actual benefits, needs, and learning styles. John Dewey became inseparable from ‘moderate schooling’ and foundational curricular change, likewise contended that understudy learning is certifiably not a single direction, static idea. Dewey’s work underscored the student’s part in molding their learning climate and conditions, which thus shape their growth opportunities. Instructors teachers to perceive the significance of the sociocultural setting of learning in the mid-twentieth century.

Dynamic and relational viewpoints zeroed in on how the pupils cooperate with the setting wherein the educational curriculum is conveyed. This brought up issues regarding what is available in that education program setting, what the pupils can see and hear, how the kids collaborate inside the environment, and how they talk and communicate with different pupils, items, and their instructor. Assuming early childhood experts acknowledge this perspective on advancing is connected with pupils’ insight, foundation, and necessities. In that case, the teacher’s job as a specialist and the pupil’s as a beneficiary of awareness become incomprehensible. Pupils’ are developing significantly unique lived encounters of what they experience in their educational setting, rather than engaging theoretical data and understanding. This perspective also suggests that evaluating understudy learning through testing after taking an interest in a particular curricular movement won’t reveal the sorts and characteristics of encounters they have had while learning. The educational curriculum we’re checking out in this paper is set in social orders where obligatory tutoring and mass instruction have formed the training framework and children’s education curriculum viewpoints. Compulsory mass schooling has likewise underscored educational program homogenization and the need to contrast one pupil with another. The effect of a put-together instrumental pattern in education concerning three explicit instances of early childhood education plans will be analyzed in this paper. These models have taken on moderate and socioculturally based instructive standards to changing degrees (Moll, 2013). Therefore, the effect of late patterns toward homogenization, government-sanctioned testing, successful administration, and different parts of what can portray as social proficiency’ development. Hence, it has regularly brought about battles and compromises to address the tensions between instrumental/professional and moderate/sociocultural perspectives on the early childhood curriculum.

The current advanced English Foundation Stage Curriculum Guidance for early childhood settings in England is the principal model analyzed in this paper. This public early educational program, which expects to guide childhood professionals and instructors so kids can be ready for the following phase of schooling, is generally supported by a resurgence in instrumental convictions(Wood, 2020). The National Curriculum for New Zealand’s youth area, Te Whariki, is the subsequent model. Moderate and sociocultural hypotheses and beliefs should be visible as motivations for this educational program structure. It likewise tries to perceive and advance the particular social impacts that emerge because of biculturalism and social variety. Lastly, contextual analysis is situated in Reggio Emilia, a flourishing northern Italian area. This perspective differs most from instrumental/professional ways of dealing with schooling. Unlike the Foundation Stage Curriculum in England and Te Whariki, the Reggio Emilia approach doesn’t follow a National Curriculum system or formalized educational program strategy. As an option in contrast to public concentrated, uniform educational programs, it addresses a confined, student-focused methodology. The Reggio Emilia approach can advance moderate and sociocultural perspectives on the kid in this specific circumstance without being hampered by instrumental and professionally arranged perspectives on the educational plan, learning, and instructional method (McNally, and Slutsky, 2018). The teacher is considered a partner and co-student with the child, whose job is to direct, work with, and energize research in this methodology. The pupil is seen as having freedoms, a functioning constructor of information, and a social being.

The Foundation Stage Curriculum

The initiation of a National Curriculum Framework for elementary and high school education in England in 1988 contributed to the primary midway characterized Core Curriculum for English schools in light of a subject hypothesis of educating. The curriculum was based on England’s centralized early education system. It has resulted in a battle between many elementary school students’ progressive ideals and recent authorities’ and policymakers’ longing to make a more robust and unified arrangement of early childhood curricula with predictable connections to the National Curriculum in elementary education. The Early Years Curriculum Group, a gathering of master early childhood experts, attested soon after presenting a National Curriculum for elementary schools that “early childhood is substantial in itself, not just a groundwork for work, or the following phase of education.” This contention depended on the conviction that little kids are qualified for an educational program that will give them a strong establishment on which to develop into proficient and numerate grown-ups. The then Current government conveyed a record called “Positive Outcomes for Children’s Learning on Joining Compulsory Education” to all English early childhood settings with long-term olds on their rolls in 1996.

Notwithstanding the case that the materials “don’t indicate an educational program,” the report point-by-point learning targets to be met by the age of five. Many considered it the organization’s endeavor to normalize the youth educational plan all through an assortment of settings. A public review plot for kindergarten settings was acquainted and connected with subsidizing as a component of the most common way of giving a steady, brought-together education structure(Wood, 2020).

Such centralized upgrades were made to the tensions looked at by early childhood educators, as many viewed them as incongruent with their perspectives on childhood and how early childhood education programs ought to be executed. Accordingly, the regulating idea of the gaining results drew a ton of analysis from the early childhood society. It additionally put pressure on elementary schools to make associations with the National Curriculum. Numerous youth teachers accepted that these unified highlights were contrary to how small kids learn. These progressions were also seen as impacting the youth educational plan remotely rather than inside the general public, also as coming down on those accountable for executing it. Educational program change direction, based on the components of a substantial, was presented in 1999. The new ‘Early Learning Goals’ record portrays destinations for kids matured 3 to 6 as they entered the principal phase of the National Curriculum. Thus, to increase expectations, an accentuation on numeracy and proficiency was set, as per the public authority targets. Rather than being coordinated and comprehensive as in the later contextual investigations, information was introduced as categorized into six areas of learning. With the references to key standards and play, we’re following most of the kids’ teachers’ perspectives on what is appropriate for youth development. Following the early childhood society showings, made another arrangement of rules called ‘Educational program Guidance for the Foundation Stage.’ This record was made in a joint effort with a different gathering of childhood teachers. Albeit the learning goals continued as before, the accentuation moved to depict learning potential open doors and encounters that are fitting for small kids, rather than on accomplishing precise results. The archive turned out to be adequate for the local early childhood area. Constantly 2000, the English early childhood educational program had taken on a successive way to deal with learning. It is coordinated around ‘gaining regions’ that are forced from an external perspective and are connected to the National Curriculum’s branches of knowledge (Wood, 2020).

Apart from that, learning areas divide into’ stepping stones,’ prompting early learning destinations inexactly connected with age. Learning happens in a direct successive way, which can be evaluated and organized at foreordained levels, as indicated by the model’s perspective on kids’ turn of events. Policymakers have made presumptions regarding where the classes start and end for all kids by organizing the educational program and its appraisal. They’ve likewise sorted out what can acquire abilities and information. This progression model was considered to be valuable to professionals by policymakers since it gave clear direction on the most proficient method to execute the early learning objectives reliably across all youth settings. According to the viewpoint of the early childhood setting, childhood direction depends on a model that has been outlined by individuals who are not engaged with kids’ encounters or the curriculum system. They seem, by all accounts, to be more worried about the reason for schooling than with the schooling experience itself (Miller et al., 2003). Despite the early child education mediation and ensuing joint effort with government organizations, the early learning objectives were molded by the requirement for understudies to accomplish characterized results. Early learning objectives allies contend that they give secure establishments to future accomplishment, giving kids the ideal beginning in their lives as deep-rooted pupils. Therefore, these destinations depend on the requirement for schools to provide educational curricula that will furnish pupils with the information, abilities, and understandings they will need in grown-up life and work. In light of the need to connect with resulting educational programs that pay attention to business and financial contemplations, this methodology should be visible as elitist, non-populist, and non-popularity-based. A few pundits accept that monetary reviews and attention at last rouse this technique on business seriousness. Notwithstanding the way that it is intended to be a comprehensive educational program that addresses the issues of all kids (Staggs, 2000), such a model should be visible as focusing on aggressive strength. It advances that the essential objective should be to help the people who can flourish and meet expertise-based accomplishment objectives, rather than oblige singularity and equal access for all children.

Te Wha¨riki

Te Wha riki, New Zealand’s early childhood education program structure, was created. The early childhood education program designers in New Zealand were working in comparative conditions to the people who fostered the youth educational plan in England. The academic project was connected to the National Curriculum in elementary schools. Notwithstanding this constraint, Te Wha riki’s makers made a structure that fuses a bi-cultural viewpoint, an anti-racist methodology, and complementary associations with New Zealand’s Maori people group. Helen May, Margaret Carr, and Tilly Reedy, who were accountable for growing New Zealand’s youth educational program, needed to incorporate ‘equivalent and reasonable instructive open doors and high-quality pre-school strategies and practices’ in the methodology (Duhn, 2012). The conversations included an assorted gathering of specialists and agents from different kinds of youth administrations, just as individuals with broadly perceived aptitude. The report is written in both English and Maori. Maori viewpoints were a different yet vitally related structure. Te Wha riki was established on the essential standards of Maori epistemology, as surveyed by Tilly Reedy, to make a bicultural record. The coordinators were likewise mindful of forms of public and global viewpoints communicated in late youth writing and examination. The fundamental vision depended on Vygotsky’s sociocultural perspective on educational programs and youth. The Te Wha riki educational program archive’s starting proclamation communicates the sociocultural of the New Zealand early childhood education plan. Carr utilizes the sociocultural hypothesis to contend that the youth educational program can be considered a social site, including the development of social reality, which prompts the development of informative collaborations among educators and pupils.

Te Wha riki is the abridged name for New Zealand’s early childhood education plan. Te Wha riki contains various allegorical implications, as is expected in the Maori language. This book depends on genuine encounters with flax weaving, a significant piece of traditional Maori culture. ‘Wha riki’ alludes to a woven mat on which anybody can stand yet consolidates focal objectives and practices into different examples or projects that only learning places can create to address their novel learning circumstances. However, differentiation with the Foundation Stage Curriculum in England depends on the educational program’s step model. The idea of a “cobweb” model of education plan is one more allegory passed on in the title. As per May and Carr, the idea of a web was a vital element of the educational program record’s conceptualization. Accordingly, Te Wha riki, both in name and content, indicates a takeoff from the educational program assessment step model in light of quantifiable results.

Therefore, Te Wha riki considers the educational program a perplexing and rich experiential cycle emerging from kids’ cooperation with their physical and social environmental elements. It is partitioned into three age gatherings: “infants,” “babies,” and “small kids.” Reedy, May, and Carr connected specific social assessments of learning in New Zealand social orders too late global and kid advancement writing, which underlines changing perspectives rather than a general perspective on kid improvement in the progress of Te Wha riki. It has adopted an ‘all-encompassing’ strategy that considers Vygotsky’s examples of social of the kid (Moll, 2013). The weaving representation suggests in Te Wha riki’s’spider web’ conceptualization of the educational program is the piece of understanding. The New Zealand kid’s network of a kids-focused, relational, intercultural vision supports this educational program. May and Carr recognized that the advancement of Maori and Pacific Island pre-school and elementary school programs during the 1980s required the formation of educational plans that perceived New Zealanders’ double legacy. These drives brought the significance of a dream that included connections between culture, language, and figuring out how to consider New Zealand instructors of little kids. Te Wha riki is a purposeful shift away from an administration-driven, instrumental vision of youngster advancement toward an educational plan strategy that stresses more prominent variety and student-focused methodologies.

Such a point of view didn’t dependably line up with the public authority’s objective of fostering a National Curriculum system, and numerous youth instructors attempted to apply the expression “way to deal with education” to rehearse in early childhood settings. Notwithstanding the tension, an educational program structure was made that wholly coordinated with other curriculum dreams. New Zealand’s execution of all-encompassing, open-finished, comprehensive educational program rules has been an enormous achievement. Carr and May portray the cooperative cycle that prompted this outcome because of interviews and compromise. Early childhood associations and professionals were mindful that they expected to offer an option ‘characterized’ educational program to keep the New Zealand National Curriculum from ‘streaming lower’ into early childhood settings.

This trade-off, be that as it may, puts pressure between obliging children’s requirements and variety while sticking to a public system intended for a country with mass training and enormous gatherings of pupils. McNaughton calls attention to that in early childhood settings in New Zealand, students’ activities are interceded by explicit exercises, and through these exercises, advancement happens. Notwithstanding the significance of a pupil’s necessities, the more extensive educational program endorses a formative arrangement, regardless of whether it is moderately adaptable. As expressed in the Te Wha riki report, the singular pupil can’t be the sole wellspring of educational plan improvement in the present circumstance. Subsequently, the trade-off came to be adjusting an educational plan structure to student-focused encounters containing an intrinsic strain. Deciding to characterize an academic plan, regardless of its adaptability, may restrict the kid’s active job in co-building and recreating individual implications. Just as instructors’ capacity to work together with children through shared implications and understandings in which kids assume a functioning and imaginative part. The sociocultural, Vygotskian system is acknowledged as key to Te Wha riki’s sociocultural uplifts this pressure (Duhn, 2012).

Reggio Emilia

The last model in this paper addresses an alternate point of view on child-focused practice in an educational setting. Reggio Emilia depends on sociocultural standards and accentuates a student-focused way to deal with educating and learning, like Te Whariki. Reggio Emilia, then again, isn’t a compromise between the requests of a National Curriculum system and a student-focused educational plan structure, as Te Whariki is. Since Reggio Emilia teachers don’t follow any foreordained public form and are regularly alluded to as an ‘approach’ or ‘instructive framework,’ the pressure between a student-focused educational plan and executing endorsed, pre-chosen rules and learning exercises doesn’t emerge in this model. The Reggio Emilia strategy can be found at the moderate, student-focused finish of the philosophy range that shapes youth training. It is a local area upheld, privately engaged, and action-based instructive framework that encapsulates progressive education. It is the aftereffect of a solitary teacher’s motivation, Loris Malaguzzi, rather than unified policymaking and public rules (Soler, and Miller, 2003.) Malaguzzi was motivated by the political settings he experienced during WWII and after-war Italy to battle for executing his vision of a pupil-focused educational program that was not administered by rule suggestions.

Therefore, Malaguzzi’s work is enlivened by his wartime and extremist encounters, which instructed him that individuals who aimlessly adjusted and obeyed were risky. He accepted that a dream of kids who could act and think for themselves ought to be cultivated in the new society. Accordingly, he focused on childrens’ viewpoints on the world and planned an early childhood education framework in light of the child’s viewpoint. Kids were considered particular people with privileges rather than necessities. Malaguzzi left his state school training position to become engaged with local area drives to construct and run schools established by guardians close to Reggio Emilia in the Emilia Romagna district of Northern Italy, to understand this vision. This move made it simpler for him to place his faith in a pluralistic methodology that incorporated the inclusion of kids, guardians, educators, directors, and legislators. By 1967, the district of Reggio Emilia had assumed control over all of the parent-run schools and had shown its backing by allotting 12% of the Town Council financial plan to subsidize the youth program. Crafted by Dewey, Bronfenbrenner, and Vygotsky should be visible as motivation for Malaguzzi’s vision for working with small kids. Dewey’s idea of a student-centered perspective on realizing, which perceives and underlines the encounters and understandings that the kid brings to their tutoring experience, is one impact that should be visible in Malaguzzi’s reasoning. Like Dewey, Malaguzzi stressed cooperation and interest in the learning system, just as the significance of dealing with a project (McNally, and Slutsky, 2018).

A perspective on information advancement as a cooperative organization among youngsters and grown-ups was vital. Malaguzzi additionally drew on Vygotsky, so the idea of the grown-up childhood relationship is integral to Reggio Emilia’s work. Patricia Ghedini, the Emilia Romagna district’s head of Early Years administrations, underscores Reggio Emilia experts’ faith in Malaguzzi’s ever-evolving theory, which stresses individual contrasts, pluralistic methodologies, and processes, and goes against an emphasis on normalization, results, and financial results. ‘Assuming that a general public in light of the legend of useful result (and along these lines benefit) requires just half individual’s relentless practitioners, productive reproducers-it should be off-base and should transform it,’ she composes. We want individuals who are fit for utilizing their creative mind to transform it.’ A continuous exchange inside Reggio Emilia schools, which questions and difficulties existing logical, philosophical, and instructive perspectives just as acknowledged showing practices and approaches, has likewise assumed a critical part in advancing Malaguzzi’s vision. Pupils, guardians, educators, government officials, and teachers from different nations participate in this exchange (McNally, and Slutsky, 2018). Reggio Emilia instructors have tested the prevailing talk and acknowledged acts of youth teaching method by ‘deconstructing’ the predominant thoughts and speculations that have formed our originations and pictures of kids and childhood. This is a conspicuous difference to the development of different educational program approaches examined in this paper.

Subsequently, Malaguzzi has verbalized a particular vision of the child as the educational program’s beginning stage. His thoughts depend on his way of thinking, which has been affected by moderate educational scholars, just as his encounters working with and paying attention to guardians, instructors, pupils, and different teachers and partners. One analysis of the Reggio Emilia educational plan has been that it needs responsibility to society since it does not have a composed educational program. Backers of the Reggio Emilia approach contend that the educational program process is fastidiously archived, presenting their training to analysis and examination. This is cultivated by shooting, recording, and capturing the kids’ work, just as distributing and voyaging shows. This is an altogether different kind of responsibility than the outer examination process that is regularly utilized related to other educational program structures and approaches. Malaguzzi’s theory is to share, broaden, and improve his academic plan vision by making Reggio Emilia teaching apparent to other people.


Therefore, in early childhood educational programs, the differentiation and comparison practices would generally be captivated around moderate, student-focused perspectives about formal versus informal learning, the job of play in education, and the acknowledgment of social contrasts. The models we’ve taken a gander at have also come to various arrangements about how they adjust to or reject a National Curriculum, just as the tensions for incorporated early childhood education programs. A perspective on the child as a future student is at the core of the English Foundation Stage Curriculum Guidance. This has brought about educational plan content that emphasizes ‘subject-related learning objectives, just as professionals feel constrained to utilize more proper teaching strategies to prepare kids for school passage. Play is viewed as a consigned action. Also, Reggio Emilia, the kid, is viewed as a strong accomplice who ‘effectively co-builds’ the educational plan content with a more proficient. Although content is comprehensively planned inside the Te Wha riki educational plan structure, the bicultural idea of youth is praised through an educational plan that considers the singular planning of ‘strands and strings. Thus, to mirror the requirements and interests of neighborhood gatherings, including native culture individuals, guardians, and youth professionals. Since it builds up and determines public instructive objectives and content ahead of time, the Foundation Stage Curriculum in England illustrates a unified, skill-situated educational plan. To help cooperative local area dreams for small kids, an elective perspective promoter for more confined and individualized models, made to address neighborhood issues. This elective perspective is presented by the Reggio Emilia rising educational plan, which sees a full, prescriptive methodology as hindering kids’ true capacity by forming their learning ahead of time. However, grown-up diagram adaptable, general instructive targets don’t form pre-determined objectives, as per Reggio Emilia teachers. These two models can be considered on the furthest edges of a range. A ‘system consultative’ way to deal with educational programs, for example, Te Wha riki, falls someplace in these two methodologies, giving the primary qualities, directions, and objectives for the curriculum yet not characterizing how these objectives ought to accomplish. Nearby local leaders are accountable for understanding and execution. These three models can be considered a component of a continuum that reaches from restricted, individualized models to concentrated objective situated structures.


Duhn, I., 2012. Globalising childhood: Assembling the bicultural child in the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki. International Critical Childhood Policy Studies Journal1(1).

McNally, S. and Slutsky, R., 2018. Teacher–child relationships make all the difference: Constructing quality interactions in early childhood settings. Early Child Development and Care188(5), pp.508-523.

MILLER, L. (2001) Shaping early childhood through the literacy curriculum, Early Years, International Journal of Research and Development, 21(2), pp. 107–116.

Moll, L.C., 2013. LS Vygotsky and education. Routledge.

Soler, J. and Miller, L., 2003. The struggle for early childhood curricula: A comparison of the English Foundation Stage Curriculum, Te Wha riki and Reggio Emilia. International Journal of Early Years Education11(1), pp.57-68.

Wood, E. ed., 2020. The Routledge reader in early childhood education. Routledge.


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