This report focuses on the following objectives
- To assess the challenges linked to water pollution by comparing tannin levels in untreated and treated water.
- To determine amount of chlorine present in water specimen and what response will occur if there is chlorine present.
- To determine if charcoal cleanses water by eliminating dissolved organic substances and how it does so.
- Use calcium and magnesium to evaluate the hardness of a given water sample.
The goal of the Analysis of Household Consumption Water is to comprehend the importance of domestic treatment of water. The principal water source for home and industrial usage in South Florida is The Biscayne Aquifer. Domestic water must fulfill specific requirements set by federal governments, local and regional before being supplied to our homes in order to be declared safe for human consumption. For the health and welfare of residents, regular lab tests for metal ions, volatile organic compounds, agricultural pesticides, and diseases that might possibly permeate groundwater network is essential.
For household usage, hardness ions like as magnesium (Mg 2+) and calcium (Ca 2+), along with other dissolved particles, should be reduced. The lab experiments that follow will demonstrate just some of the testing procedures that are used to assess the amounts of various compounds. Because this laboratory aims at water purification for household use, hardness ions, chloride ions, dissolved solids and tannins will be tested qualitatively and quantitatively.
Water Analysis Experiments
Experiment A (Tannin Concentration)
- Three separate 10mL samples filled with (1) DI (Deionization) water specimen, (2) tap water that is treated, and (3) non-treated FIU lake water.
- 1st Reagent #A
- 2nd Reagent #B
- Fill 10mL bottles with tap water, untreated FIU lake water, and DI (Deionization)) water.
- To the untreated FIU lake water, and tap water, add around five drops of 1reagent #1 and 2mL of 2nd Reagent #B. DI (Deionization)) water should be left alone.
- Remove from the oven and set aside for 30 minutes.
- Use a colorimeter procedure to reset DI (Deionization) water to 0, then scan tap water. Keep track of the outcomes.
- Repeat steps 4 and 5 for untreated FIU lake water samples. Keep track of the outcomes.
Data and Observation
|Samples of Water||Concentration of Tannin|
|Treated tap water||0.41 ppm|
|DI (Deionization)) water||1.48 ppm|
|FIU lake water||1.23 ppm|
There were no high concentrations of tannin detected in the tap sample water. The tannin concentrations in the untreated FIU lake water were higher than in tap water, although the tannin content in the small pond was the highest, at 1.48ppm. After 30 minutes of waiting for the chemicals to settle in the specimens collected, a light blue color was observed in all the 3 samples.
Tannins are antibacterial chemicals that inhibit bacterial growth by tampering with its glycoprotein. Tannins are discovered in water which has been exposed to a considerable amount of decomposing plants. These can generate yellow-colored water, except in this scenario, since the tannin amounts were minimal, the water was a bright blue. Tannins are quantified in parts per million, or ppm, using a colorimeter test. Because ponds include leaves and plants, both pond samples exhibited greater tannin levels than predicted. Because the water is frequently cleansed and tested for tannin, it was assumed that the tap water would have low to nil tannin levels. However, tannin levels were present in the tap water.
Experiment B (chloride ions)
- Silver nitrate
- Samples of small pond, tap water, and DI (Deionization) water
- Put 3 water specimens, i.e., small pond, tap water, and DI (Deionization)) into separate beakers.
- Fill each beaker with 2 – 3 big drops of silver nitrate.
- Keep recordings of your observations.
Data and Observation
|Sample of Water||Chlorine Present|
|DI (Deionization)) water||No|
Chlorine was detected in water from the tap and a shallow pond following the addition of silver nitrate. Each of these tests produced a white precipitate, suggesting the presence of chlorine. In the samples, the white precipitate emerged as a white, foggy material. The silver nitrate had no effect on DI (Deionization) water.
Chlorine is a chemical substance which is mostly used to purify water before it is consumed. It is one among the most frequent chemicals since it is highly reactive and may be found in many different compounds. The reaction that occurred when silver nitrate was applied to all 3 glass beaker was:
Just when chloride ions were present in the water samples did this reaction occur? Since the water sample was first treated with chlorine to destroy bacteria for it to be safe, the tap water exhibited the greatest reactivity to silver nitrate, as predicted.
Experiment C (Activated Charcoal as a Filter)
- Activated charcoal
- Big pond water
- Organic dye
- Filter Paper
- Collect samples of large pond water, mix with the dye, and divide into two beakers.
- Fill one beaker with activated charcoal and leave the other beaker empty. Allow 5 minutes to pass.
- Using a filter, pour the charcoal/dye slurry through.
- Pour the dye/water mixture through the filter.
- Note down your findings.
Data and Observation
The combination of charcoal and dye had a clearer and lighter color after passing through the filtering. Since this color was incorporated by the charcoal, the result was a clearer combination than the other. The purple hue of the water + dye combo was vast and varied. Since the charcoal will not go through the sieve, the majority of the dye will end up in the water.
Activated carbon, also known as activated charcoal, is a kind of coal that has been treated to exhibit low-volume holes that enhance the available surface area for chemical reactions or deposition. Due to its enormous surface area, it may make water appear cleaner and clearer, as well as improve its flavor. The charcoal + colored dye was predicted to have a clear hue since the pigment was collected by the activated carbon, causing the water transparent.
Experiment D (water hardness)
- Hardness indicator powder
- Tap water
- Hardness buffer
- Big Pond Water
- Measure out 20 milliliters of treated tap water.
- Mix with five droplets of hardness buffer.
- Mix in one hardness indicator powder scoop. Keep adding 1 scoop at a time until the mixture becomes pink.
- Keep track of the number of scoops of powder you used till it became pink.
- Repeat procedure one to four with sample of large pond water.
Data and Observation
The treated tap water became pink following addition of about around eight scoops of hardness indicator. The large pond water became pink after thirteen scoops of hardness indicator. To determine a specimen’s overall hardness level, apply the equation # of drops * 10= parts per million as CaCo3. As a result, the overall hardness of the water from the tap is 70 ppm. As per the Department of the Interior and the Water Quality Organization, this water is kind of hard. The overall hardness of the large pond water is 120ppm, which would be categorized as Hard by the Association.
The measure of hardness of the water supply is a significant component in determining its quality. The content of calcium and magnesium ions determines hardness. The hardness of a material is expressed as a part per million (ppm) of calcium carbonate. It was predicted that with just a few scoops of hardness buffer, the tap water would become pink, as it did throughout the experiments.
Tannins may be found in a variety of places, including wine, tea, fruits, rivers, and marshes. Tannins are particularly detrimental if consumed in large amounts because they prevent the absorption of nutrients like iron to our body. Tannin digestion is hazardous both to humans and also to marine species living in ponds and swamps. Chlorine is added to water to disinfect it and eliminate microorganisms, making it drinkable and suitable for use. Chlorine is most often associated with its usage in swimming pools to eliminate microorganisms that can be harmful to people. Chloride ions are linked to sodium ions, and large levels of these ions can be dangerous for people who have high blood pressure. Saltwater infiltration in groundwater is indicated by the presence of chloride ions in the water. Even though consuming water containing small concentrations of chlorine may not cause any immediate responses, repeated exposure to the water can ultimately cause toxicity.
When consumed, breathed, or in touch with the skin, activated charcoal is completely safe. Due to its high surface area, this charcoal is capable of absorbing significant amounts of chemicals or toxins. Activated charcoal has been used to treat a variety of ailments for ages. Specialists continue to employ charcoal in a variety of ways even now. It’s used to heal dyspepsia, sterilize wounds, and as an antidote for poisons. In lab investigations, charcoal is often used to purify a variety of liquids. Finally, hard water is defined as having high Mg and Ca ion concentrations. Hard water can create a variety of issues. For example, magnesium and calcium can accumulate in pipes, producing issues with dishwashing appliances.
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