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Didactics Adapted to Students With Special Needs

Special education perspective refers to Diverse methods of comprehending and meeting the needs of students with disabilities and other special needs. In order to create inclusive and prosperous learning environments, these viewpoints offer several frames and lenses through which educators can view and respond to students’ needs. For teachers to create effective support plans for students with disabilities and other special needs, they must thoroughly understand the many points of view.

Relational Perspective

The relational Perspective is One of the three perspectives on special education that emphasizes connections and communication. This approach sees the student as a person who is always located within a social context, which is influenced by and, in turn, influences that setting, according to Nilsson & Jakobsson (2019). This indicates that the relational perspective concerns how students interact with their surroundings, such as their family, peers, school, and community. The student’s success in school and life depends on having a good relationship with them.

The relational approach has important ramifications for instructional practices in special education. Teachers and other school employees are urged to engage students personally by genuinely caring about them, listening to their issues, and offering emotional support. Nilholm & Claes (2020) asserts that this can be accomplished by developing a friendly and inclusive learning environment where students feel free to express themselves and engage in educational activities. The relational perspective may impact students’ language and literacy development depending on the subject being taught. By including talks, storytelling, and reading in the curriculum, Magnússon (2019) advises instructors to concentrate on fostering a language-rich atmosphere.

Dilemma Perspective

The ethical and moral dilemmas that arise while interacting with students with special needs are highlighted by the special education field’s “Dilemma Perspective.” Nilholm & Claes, (2020). claims that special education professionals must navigate moral conundrums in which they must strike a balance between the needs and rights of the student, the objectives of the educational system, and the expectations of parents and society.

For teachers in special education, the dilemma perspective has significant ramifications. It first emphasizes the importance of special education professionals identifying and resolving ethical or moral dilemmas when teaching kids with disabilities. Second, it emphasizes the significance of tailoring instruction and support to each student’s needs and capabilities. In order to ensure that the education of students with disabilities is in line with their cultural, religious, and personal values, it highlights the necessity of including families and the larger community in decision-making processes (Magnússon, 2019).

The Dilemma Perspective in mathematics education can be seen in using adaptations and accommodations to guarantee that students with disabilities have fair access to mathematics instruction. For instance, in order to ensure that a student with a disability can fully engage in math class, a teacher may need to strike a balance between the use of calculators or other assistive technology and the development of fundamental math abilities.

Cultural Perspective

The cultural perspective in special education emphasizes the necessity of appreciating cultural diversity in educational settings. According to this perspective, it is essential to consider the specific requirements and experiences that students from various cultural backgrounds may have in order to deliver an effective and inclusive education.

The cultural perspective has ramifications for special education pedagogical activities, including the requirement to develop a culturally responsive learning environment that honors and respects students’ cultural backgrounds. This entails using educational methods and resources that are culturally appropriate, as well as identifying and removing any potential cultural learning obstacles. Teachers must also try to engage students’ families in the educational process and develop strong relationships with them (Magnússon, 2019). By appreciating and acknowledging students’ native tongues and dialects, the cultural perspective can be used to study the language. Teachers can incorporate literature and material that is culturally relevant into their lessons and provide students the chance to express their own cultural experiences and viewpoints.

Comparison of perspectives

Diverse viewpoints offer varied ways to comprehend and cater to the needs of students with disabilities in special education. Three frequently addressed viewpoints are the relational, dilemma, and critical views. The relational perspective strongly emphasizes creating solid bonds between educators and students, the dilemma perspective acknowledges the complexity of special education and the need for ethical and informed decision-making, and the critical perspective seeks to question and alter social and cultural norms that uphold inequality and exclusion. The necessity of attending to the various requirements of students with impairments is emphasized from all three angles (Eriksson & Eva, 2009). Depending on the chosen perspective, these perspectives can substantially affect pedagogical activities, such as emphasizing those that encourage social engagement, critical thinking, or activism.

It is common for students to struggle with reading, writing, or math, which has an impact on their academic achievement, self-esteem, and general well-being. Language hurdles, neuropsychiatric disorders like dyslexia and dyscalculia, and little exposure to reading and writing at home are just a few causes of these challenges. To address these issues and ensure that kids are receiving the right interventions and assistance, diagnosing the problems has emerged as a crucial first step. The diagnosing process has its benefits and drawbacks.

Advantages of Diagnosing

Early Support and Intervention

Early intervention and support can result from the early detection of reading, writing, and math challenges. This may lessen future issues in social and academic settings. Schools should offer early intervention and support to pupils who struggle with reading and writing, dyslexia, and dyscalculia, according to the National Agency for Education in Sweden (Eriksson & Eva, 2009). Specialized education, modifications, and assistive technology may be part of early intervention and assistance.

Clearer Understanding of the Student’s Needs

The needs of the students can be better understood by instructors and support personnel when reading, writing, and math issues have been identified. This can aid in determining the most suitable instructional methods and accommodations. According to Nilsson and Jacobsson (2019), the Special Education Agency in Sweden advises a thorough evaluation process to establish the student’s strengths and weaknesses to decide the best type of support.

Disadvantages of Diagnosing

Stigmatization and Labeling

The possibility of stigmatization and labeling is a drawback of diagnosing reading, literacy, or math problems. The designation of “special needs” or “disability” may cause students to feel stigmatized, harming their social interactions and self-worth. Sweden’s Special Education Agency advises a strengths-based strategy that emphasizes the student’s abilities and capabilities rather than their issues (Nilsson & Jakobsson, 2019).

Narrow Focus on Deficits

Another drawback of diagnosing reading, writing, or math problems is the potential for a deficit-focused approach. Teachers may place an undue emphasis on students’ flaws while underplaying their strengths. The National Agency for Education in Sweden advises utilizing a thorough evaluation procedure that considers the student’s interests and aspirations, skills, and problems (Nilholm & Claes, 2020).

Current General Advice from Swedish National Agency for Education

The Swedish National Agency for Education offers recommendations for diagnosing and helping kids who have problems with reading, writing, or math. The organization stresses the value of early detection and prevention in recognizing and resolving these issues. Additionally, the agency’s recommendations stress the significance of adopting a holistic perspective to comprehend students’ issues, including considering the social, emotional, and cognitive variables that might affect their learning.

The organization stresses the value of tailored support and adjustments when teaching individuals with neuropsychiatric problems. This can entail utilizing assistive technology, giving students more time to complete their assignments, or changing the curriculum to suit their requirements better (Magnússon , 2019). While identifying pupils who need further support for their reading, writing, or math skills can be helpful, there are also possible negative effects of diagnosis. Some contend that a diagnosis could result in stigmatization and be used as an excuse for having low expectations for the student.

Other Practical Advice from the Literature

The benefits of diagnosing reading and arithmetic problems include finding the underlying cause, resulting in efficient intervention tactics and accommodations, preventing long-term issues, and giving the kid relief and recognition. There are drawbacks, though, such as the possibility of labeling, stigma, and the time and cost associated with assessments. The Swedish National Agency for Education suggests adopting evidence-based interventions, a strengths-based approach involving students, and early intervention. Include them in the diagnosis process, provide evidence-based interventions and accommodations, and offer continuing support and monitoring for students with neuropsychiatric problems.

Two Definitions of Inclusion

The idea of inclusion has several definitions. Another version concentrates on developing an inclusive learning environment that recognizes and respects the diversity of all students, while the first definition stresses the physical presence of all students in the same classroom. The second definition is more thorough and considers both the particular needs of each student as well as the institution’s overall culture and procedures. Teachers can work toward inclusive practices in their daily work by developing an understanding of many views on special needs education, such as the relational, dilemma, and human rights perspectives. The culture, policies, and practices of the school can be leveraged as organizational elements to develop inclusive practices.

Relationship between Definitions of Inclusion and School Organisation

The first definition places a focus on the requirement that all students be physically present in the same classroom. If there are not enough facilities or resources to accommodate all pupils, it may be difficult for schools to do this. To ensure that all children may engage in the same classroom, a school can alter timetables, add personnel, or rearrange classrooms if it is committed to this notion of inclusion.

The second concept emphasizes the significance of developing an inclusive process that respects diversity and guarantees that all students have equal access to educational opportunities. According to this definition, schools must offer various alternatives for grouping students, foster teacher cooperation, and make use of assistive technology to meet each student’s unique learning needs (Magnússon , 2019). In order to satisfy the needs of all pupils, the organization of the school must be set up in a way that allows for flexibility and adaptability.

How Subject Teachers Can Work for Inclusive Practice in Their Everyday Work

Teachers of specific subjects are extremely important in advancing inclusive policies in schools. All students should have equitable access to education and be able to actively participate in school activities according to inclusive practices. There are various definitions of inclusion, including those based on relationships and human rights. The relational approach places a strong emphasis on the value of developing relationships between people and groups within a school community in order to foster a welcoming and supportive atmosphere (Eriksson & Eva, 2009). According to the human rights perspective, everyone has a fundamental right to inclusion in order to fully participate in society.

The use of assistive technology, flexible grouping, and teacher collaboration can encourage inclusive practices. Implementing differentiated instruction as a subject instructor can also support inclusive practices. This entails adapting education to fit the various requirements of students, which includes utilizing a variety of teaching methods and resources, offering numerous chances for student participation, and using student interests as a springboard for learning. Subject teachers can contribute to the development of an inclusive learning environment that supports the success of all students, notwithstanding differences, by putting such techniques into practice.

Relationship between Inclusion Definitions and Special Needs Education Perspectives

Diverse viewpoints have an impact on how inclusion is defined and applied in special needs education. Two prevalent viewpoints that influence how inclusion is perceived are the medical model and the social model. The social model views impairments as a result of the social environment and seeks to remove barriers and create equal opportunities for everyone, in contrast to the medical model, which views disabilities as medical illnesses that need to be treated or cured (Magnússon , 2019).

These viewpoints and concepts have educational implications that are applicable in the real world. Schools that prioritize the medical model, for instance, might set aside classrooms for special needs pupils or offer one-on-one assistance. To provide equal access to the curriculum, schools that prioritize the social model may offer modifications like assistive technology or additional time on exams.

Subject teachers need to be familiar with various viewpoints and concepts of inclusion in order to promote inclusive practices by offering adjustments and supports like differentiated instruction and peer tutoring. The promotion of inclusive practices in schools can be attributed to organizational characteristics, including equity and social justice, staff cooperation, and continuing practice assessment and evaluation. For all kids to study in a secure and supportive environment, schools must have policies and procedures that foster inclusion.


Eriksson, C., & Eva. (2009). Språkstörning en pedagogisk utmaning – PDF Gratis nedladdning.

Magnússon , A. (2019). Gunnlaugur Magnússon: Har inkluderingen gått för långt? – Skola och Samhälle.

Nilholm , & Claes. (2020). Perspektiv på specialpedagogik av Claes Nilholm (Häftad).

Nilsson , I., & Jakobsson, I.-L. (2019). Specialpedagogik och funktionshinder | 9789127120204 //


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