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Critique of Policing Ethics and Leadership


Ethics administration in the police is a comprehensive and sophisticated concept that has implications on a large scale. This abstract discusses ethics in the administration of law enforcement agencies and focuses on the challenges that leaders face in promoting integrity, accountability, and transparency. It explores various ethical frameworks and principles on which decision-making in policing is based to ensure standardization and continuity. The abstract further articulates the importance of leadership in creating an environment that promotes ethical behavior while also looking at external factors like public opinion and community relationships. Finally, the abstract emphasizes solid moral values in policing management to deliver just and fair law-enforcing services effectively.


Policing Ethics

Law Enforcement Integrity

Accountability in Policing

Leadership and Ethical Culture

Decision-Making Frameworks

Community Relations in Policing

Article Critique

The ethics of policing administration is one of the most significant topics for discussion since it affects people’s trust in police and equal, fair distribution of justice. Modern policing can only be administrative through an unwavering adherence to ethical principles, transparency, and accountability (see Ingram et al., 2016). This entry-level analysis highlights the importance of a thriving, ethical base in police governance, emphasizing how moral decision-making affects organizational culture, citizen relationships, and law enforcement success. This discussion explores the multi-dimensional contexts of ethics and their consequences for promoting ethical administration, which is central to determining the integrity and legitimacy of policing practices.

Article 1-Background

The 2018 study by Ingram, Terrill, and Paoline offers a detailed analysis of police culture, focusing on its effect on officer conduct, based on a multilevel analytical framework. This pioneering research, moving away from conventional methods, aims to delineate the social dimensions of police culture instead of investigating individual-level characteristics (see Ingram et al., 2016). Based on the analysis of data resources from a national multimethod project, the researchers explore how shared cultural perceptions within police workgroups impact officers’ behaviors. Significantly, this work contributes innovatively to the discussion of police culture and behavior by introducing ‘culture strength’ as a critical moderating context (Ingram et al., 2018). This unique approach helps to get a better insight into the position of group culture and individual actions in police departments, providing new knowledge on this complicated relationship between both factors.

Article 1: Critique of Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article

  1. Innovative Conceptualization The research offers an ingenious concept by interpreting police culture as a signature characteristic of patrol groups, bringing unique perspectives on the patterns underlying actions among law enforcers (see Ingram et al., 2016).
  2. Utilizes empirical data from a national project. It helps cement the results’ reliability and offers a complete view of research outcomes.


  1. Lack of generalizability: The study’s universal applicability is limited because the data used was tailored to a national context only, which is not applicable globally.
  2. Some measurement challenges include issues raised concerning how to measure this new concept regarding its strength in culture (see Ingram et al., 2016).

Article 2-Background

In 2018, researcher Toby Miles-Johnson conducted a critical study to decipher the variables influencing how police recruits perceive and behave in different communities. Finally, this study sought to analyze the attitudes and beliefs of occupational groups and how they relate to several demographic characteristics and personal background features of these recruits. To thoroughly analyze a great deal of data to show how the personal backgrounds and attitudes that superior officers influence affect recruitships, Miles-Johnson used an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model. The in-depth and detailed approach adopted by this study thus offered essential insights into the complex interplay between a recruit’s background and their educational training that seeks to discern how these elements interacted to determine behavioral patterns and attitudes when dealing with diverse populations. However, this particular interplay was quite complex in the research. It revealed two aspects of influence that matter: personal inherent beliefs and their impact on a person’s culture via professional means (Miles-Johnson, 2018). The importance of this study lies in its possible relevance for guiding the formation and implementation of training programs or policies promoting empathy, inclusivity, and sensitivity to policing practices that serve different societies.

Article 2: Critique of Strengths and Weaknesses of the Article

  1. Wide Focus considers occupational attitudes and background characteristics, offering a complete picture of factors influencing police recruits’ impressions.
  2. Large Sample: A sample of 946 recruits is used, which enhances the statistical robustness and validity of research findings (see Miles-Johnson, 2019).


  1. Possible Cultural Bias: The results of this study may be culturally biased since they focus on Australian police recruits, thereby limiting its relevance and effectiveness outside other international contexts.
  2. Self-Reporting Data: This uses self-reported data for analytical purposes; this may cause subjective bias that affects the reliability and objectivity of research results (see Miles-Johnson, 2018).

Summary of Articles

In 2018, however, Toby Miles-Johnson conducted an elaborate and detailed study to interrogate the numerous influence factors on the different attitudes of police recruits towards minority groups (see Miles-Johnson, 2018). This research is primarily aimed at investigating the occupational attitudes and personal background characteristics of police recruits to determine how they affect their perceptions and practices towards individuals drawn from various races, ethnicities, religions, sexual orientations, or preferences, as well as gender (see Ingram et al., 2016). Using an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model, the study scrutinized the data to reveal how personal backgrounds and senior officers’ attitudes shape recruits policing behavior towards different groups. The study’s methodology was developed to provide deep insights into the convoluted relationship between a recruit’s past and professional training. In particular, it has shown how these compounding factors help define their behaviors and attitudes toward different community segments (see Miles-Johnson, 2019). In this way, his study of the intricacies of these drivers provides a deliberate and detailed insight into how new officers perceive diversity in law enforcement. This work is an essential contribution to the field, allowing one to see valuable insights for training programs and policies guiding a more inclusive understanding of law enforcement.

Conclusion: Personal Reflection, Position, and Christian Worldview

Considering the valuable work of Ingram, Terrill, et al., I am inspired by the ethical policing in our society. These investigations have confirmed the need for a moral compass in law enforcement. Police culture and individual mindset play a significant role in determining how officers treat different members of communities. It brings back to mind the level of responsibility that law enforcement officials have, not only in implementing laws but also in setting moral standards for members of a societal group. Based on these studies, law enforcement agencies should put more emphasis on the development of ethical and accountable cultures. Thus, this includes strict compliance with ethical standards and an ongoing commitment to training and development in cultural competency ethics. Agencies should take action to break down any negativity in the culture and forge positive, community-oriented mindsets among officers.

From a Christian perspective, these studies reflect Biblical justice, righteousness, and equality among all persons. Christianity teaches us the importance of dignity and respect for fellow human beings, a perspective that conforms to what ethical policing espouses. Human rights, fairness, and compassion are embodied in these Biblical principles that mean a lot to law enforcers. This Christian worldview emphasizes the role of law enforcement officials not only as custodians but also as preservators and upholders of morality in society.


Ingram, J. R., PAOLINE III, E. A., & Terrill, W. (2016). A multilevel framework for understanding police culture: The role of the workgroup. Criminology, 51(2), 365-397.

Ingram, J. R., Terrill, W., & Paoline, E. A. (2018). Police Culture And Officer Behavior: Application Of A Multilevel Framework. Criminology., 56(4), 780–811.

Miles-Johnson, T. (2018). Policing diverse people: How occupational attitudes and background characteristics shape police recruits’ perceptions.

Miles-Johnson, T. (2019). Policing diverse people: How occupational attitudes and background characteristics shape police recruits’ perceptions. Sage open, 9(3), 2158244019865362.


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