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Assessments in Individualized Education Plan (IEP)


The creation and execution of an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for students with disabilities must include assessments. The IEP is a specialized strategy created to cater to each student’s needs and guarantee access to the educational resources and accommodations required for academic success. Assessments offer insightful data about a student’s abilities, weaknesses, and learning preferences, which is utilized to build the IEP. The IEP process involves using a wide range of assessments, including formal and informal evaluations, norm- and criterion-referenced evaluations, standardized and non-standardized, and many more. Formal evaluations are standardized tests intended to evaluate a student’s knowledge and capabilities in a particular subject, like arithmetic or reading. Contrarily, informal assessments are more open-ended and may involve observations, interviews, and checklists. Norm-referenced assessments compare student performance to that of their classmates, whereas criterion-referenced assessments measure student performance in relation to a specified set of standards. The student’s parents or guardians, teachers, special education specialists, and other members of the school staff, as necessary, make up the team that normally conducts assessments. A range of techniques, such as direct observation, interviews, and a study of the student’s academic and behavioural records, may be used by the team to learn more about the student. Outside experts, such as a psychologist or speech-language pathologist, may also provide insight for the examination. The IEP team uses the assessment results to determine the educational goals, services, and accommodations that will help the student progress. For instance, if an assessment reveals that a student has a reading disability, the IEP team may develop goals related to reading comprehension and provide accommodations like extra time. This essay describes assessments in individualized education plans (IEP); specifically, the paper describes how assessments guide individualized education plans (IEP).


Types of Assessments

The main types of assessments used in developing IEP include formal and informal assessments, norm-referenced and criterion-referenced assessments, and standardized and non-standardized assessments (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 15). Formal assessments are standardized tests created to gauge a student’s proficiency in a particular subject, like reading or math. These exams are typically given under predetermined circumstances, with predetermined guidelines for scoring and analyzing the outcomes. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities are two examples of formal evaluations (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 16). Formal assessments frequently entail a precise set of guidelines and processes that must be followed to ensure that the exam is given consistently and equally to all students. Teachers can assess a student’s performance in relation to their classmates by comparing the results of these exams to a normative sample of children in the same age group or grade level (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 18).

According to Pierangelo and Giuliani (2022), formal evaluations can assist educators in determining a student’s strengths and weaknesses as well as any particular needs they may have in terms of academic support or accommodations when utilized to inform the construction of an IEP (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 22). The outcomes of these tests can be utilized to create individualized teaching plans and interventions suited to each learner’s needs. Formal evaluations can be vital in encouraging academic success and improving outcomes for students with special needs by offering a thorough and data-driven approach to supporting student development (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 25).

Informal assessments are more flexible and involve interviews, checklists, and observations. These tests could be used to learn more about a student’s conduct, social abilities, or academic development. Teacher observations, anecdotal records, and student self-evaluations are examples of informal assessments. To provide a complete view of a student’s strengths and limitations, informal evaluations are frequently utilized to supplement the data obtained from official examinations (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 28). Typical informal assessments include observation, where teachers can learn about a student’s learning preferences, areas of strength, and areas of need by observing their behaviour, relationships with classmates, or performance in class. Other forms of informal assessments are conversations where teachers may have casual discussions with students to discover more about their interests, driving forces and preferred learning methods. Likewise, performance-based assignments may be required for a work or project showing mastery of a specific idea or ability. This could entail producing a work of art, penning a narrative, or resolving a practical issue (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 29).

Informal assessment can guide the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) by aiding educators in better understanding a student’s unique requirements and adjusting educational strategies and treatments accordingly. For instance, if students have trouble understanding what they are reading, an informal assessment may highlight the particular abilities or methods they need to practice, including decoding, drawing conclusions, or summarizing (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 133). Teachers and other educational professionals can give targeted help and accommodations that are individualized to each student’s particular needs and skills by gathering information through informal assessment. On the other hand, norm-referenced assessments compare student performance to that of their classmates. The rules for scoring and evaluating the results of these tests are often standardized (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 2134). The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Kaufman Assessment Battery are two norm-referenced tests. Another important type of assessment when it comes to the IEP writing process is the criterion-referenced tests which compare student performance to a preset set of benchmarks. These evaluations judge whether a student has attained particular behavioural or intellectual objectives. State-required exams and tests made by teachers are examples of criterion-referenced assessments (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 136).

Tests that are given and graded consistently are known as standardized assessments. These tests are intended to be impartial and fair, and the outcomes can be contrasted between pupils or schools. The Stanford and California Achievement Tests are two examples of standardized tests. Non-standardized tests are tests that don’t follow a predetermined format or set of administration or scoring guidelines (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 327). These tests may be more adaptable and permit greater creativity in how the test is given. Classroom observations and examinations created by teachers are two examples of non-standard assessments. These assessments guide the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) in that teachers utilize the findings to guide the creation of the IEP once the assessments are finished. To understand the student’s strengths and challenges and to choose the right goals and services, it is important to carefully study the evaluation results, find the student’s functional strengths and shortcomings, and establish clear, quantifiable, realistic, relevant, and time-bound goals and objectives for the child in question. These assessments determine the accommodations and change the student needs to access the curriculum effectively (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 329).

Assessments also guide the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) by monitoring the student’s progress. Continual evaluation and progress monitoring guarantee that the IEP is still relevant and functional. Data collection on the student’s progress toward the IEP’s goals and objectives comprises progress monitoring and assessments, observations, and other types of measurements to get this data to relevant decision-makers; frequently examining whether the student is progressing and whether the IEP needs to be modified is how assessments guide the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2022, p. 331).


To create and administer effective IEPs for students with disabilities, evaluations are a necessary tool. The assessment process consists of several official and informal measurements used to pinpoint the student’s strengths and weaknesses, create quantifiable goals and objectives, and choose the best services and supports. The test results track the student’s development and modify the IEP as necessary. The effectiveness of the IEP for the student and the availability of the assistance they require to succeed in school is ensured by assessments. Assessments are, thus, a fundamental aspect of the IEP writing process.


Pierangelo, R., & Giuliani, G. A. (2022). Assessment in special education: A practical approach (6th ed.). Prentice Hall.


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