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Annotated Bibliography on Human Trafficking

  1. Clawson, Heather J., et al. “Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature.” Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Human and Health Services. Retrieved December 25 (2009): 2009.

This systematic literature review of current work on human smuggling into and across the United States focuses on recent research aimed at recognizing victims of human trafficking and effectively rescuing them as two of the most crucial concerns—an even more narrow. The issue of “internal trafficking,” also known as the “trafficking of U.S. citizens or lawful permanent residents, typically within the U.S.,” as well as its effects on young people who were born in the United States and the effectiveness of support services for victims, are the focal points of this discussion.


This is an excellent credible source to use in this research. This is because the author of this source looks keenly into human trafficking as they occur within the borders of America. The author explains how the network is channeled to traffic humans and the impacts it brings on the life of young people.

  1. Feingold, David A. “Human trafficking.” Foreign policy(2005): 26-32.

In this work, Human trafficking may be a recent occurrence, but it has made headlines only recently. Forced migration across international boundaries is as old as the market forces that drive it. What’s unique is the traffic’s intensity and the knowledge that humankind has done little to slow it. If we want to stop people who traffic in human lives, we have to look past our initial reactions. This article provides a primer on globalization and its effects on our daily lives, detailing national, institutional, and cultural transformations. The article acts as both a scout and a translator, compiling the observations of some of the best journalists, intellectuals, and professionals worldwide to shed light on our day’s most pressing global issues. This study aims to inform those who aren’t experts but understand that events on the other side of the world have consequences at home. In the United States and over Ninety other nations, readers include some of the most influential individuals in business, governments, and other technical experts.


This source adds a new dynamic as a research source. The author goes back in time to look at the history of human trafficking. Even though this source was printed some years back, the author narrates what is happening in the real world today. As a source, I would incorporate it in my research to give a picture of the history of human trafficking, its effects on the real world, the cartels and financiers behind it, and the metamorphosis it has undergone to become modern-day human trafficking. Because as the author of this piece puts it, human trafficking is as old as the forces that drive it.

  1. Gozdziak, Elzbieta M., and Elizabeth A. Collett. “Research on human trafficking in North America: A review of literature.” International Migration1‐2 (2005): 99-128.

With more smugglers being caught and more victims being given shelter, researchers in North America now have a unique chance to examine the trafficking trend in the geographical area objectively. This research examines the predominance of human smuggling in the area, trafficking movement patterns, victim and smuggler character traits, and the facilities needed to safeguard victims. Even with these openings, there has been a need for a more comprehensive, factual, and theoretically sound study on human smuggling in North America. The purpose of this article is to do a cursory examination of the research on human smuggling in the area. The U.N. Convention to Stop, Repress, and Prosecute Trafficking in People, Particularly Women, and Children, is only one example of the many types of literature discussed. Yet, we incorporate them since their creators contend that they are central to the discussion of human trafficking. The historical roots of modern traffickers are discussed against the backdrop of current smuggling definitions, and a review of the relevant literature is conducted. To develop successful policies and programs for trafficking victims, it is necessary to draw a clear picture of the existing research in this area. We make an effort to respond to the following concerns.


An extensive examination of this source shows this is a source that will be used in this research. In this article, the author looks at the core victims of human trafficking. The vulnerable women and children and how they are impacted by human trafficking. The author looks further at the patterns of how this human trafficking is carried out, answering the question of how is this human trafficking carried out. Apart from that, this article is fundamental in this research since it attempts to explain the efforts by NGOs and international humanitarian organizations to combat human trafficking. What role do they partake in as far as human trafficking is concerned? Lastly what has been their progress so far in stopping human trafficking?

  1. Jordan Miriam. Smuggling Migrants at the Border Now a Billion-Dollar Business. NewYork(2022).Retrieved from:

Contrary to the widespread assumption about the danger of the U.S.-Mexico border and frequent assertions that it’s necessary to secure the border to avoid the introduction of terrorism into the nation as a whole, research has continued to reveal the safe operation of the U.S. border region. We rarely poll border people on their perceptions of security and crime, even though their answers could shed important light on the allegations that the frontier is an unsafe conflict zone that jeopardizes the whole country. Despite widespread calls for border security, this study looks into how locals in El Paso, Texas—a sizable city on the U.S. side of the border opposite Ciudad Juárez, Mexico—feel about the safety and security of their community. Information was gathered from a survey financed by the National Institutes of Health that polled 919 locals on their thoughts on crime, feelings of protection, and general city security. The data demonstrate that most border city inhabitants feel safe, with the highest rates of safety reporting coming from undocumented individuals who grew up in El Paso. Another nuance to consider in debates about immigration in this country’s link to violence and crime is that we discover the foreign-born demographic had a significantly lower misdemeanor recidivism rate than the native-born population. El Pasoans don’t seem worried about their safety, despite media assertions to the contrary regarding the carnage on the borderline with Mexico’s Ciudad Juárez. We address the discrepancy between actuality on the frontier and impression outside the buffer zone. We suggest potential causes for these reduced violence rates on the U.S. side of the border.


To begin with, this is a recent publication on human trafficking. Based on my observation of this article, it’s more politically oriented in the stated topic. Therefore I might forego it in research since I perceive the author to be politically biased when looking at the issue of human trafficking.

  1. Lee, Maggy, ed. Human trafficking. Routledge, 2013.

There are ten chapters totaling 240 pages; each is a comprehensive essay written by a prominent expert. The annual value of the human trafficking trade is third largest only to that of drugs and weaponry, making it one of the most profitable marketplaces for organized crime. The exact number of victims of human trafficking each year is tough to determine. However, the U.S. Department of State puts the amount around 600,000 and 800,000. Non-profit groups estimate that number to be as much as 2 million annually. About 80% of victims are female, with half being underage when they are trafficked. This book focuses on how immigration policy, prostitution, and the search for low-wage labor in the European Union and the United Kingdom are all affected by human trafficking. No mention of the estimated 300,000 children under 18 who are being exploited in over thirty countries experiencing armed conflict due to human trafficking, as reported by UNICEF. Instead, it discusses forced labor, with most cases occurring when bad employers take advantage of legal loopholes to manipulate employees. It recognizes that sexual abuse is a common experience for female victims of compelled or bonded labor, particularly women and girls in servitude. Compared to sex trafficking, forced labor is more difficult to detect and quantify as a type of human trafficking. Contrary to the prurience of the media, who thrive on scurrilous, frequently unauthenticated allegations, global smuggling for sexual exploitation rarely involves the same criminal networks.


This is a significant source among the many sources in this research. This is because other authors examine the many causes and forces behind human trafficking. This author creatively digs into the fueling factor behind human trafficking. The market! Yes, this author narrates the profitability of this kind of trade. The various sector in the economy where these humans are sold and the forces behind these markets. A more recent source and most definitely the best source for this research.

  1. Morris Jane Mosbacher. Human trafficking is a global epidemic. And we can all help fight it. CNN. (2019). Retrieved from:

Human trafficking, as outlined by Jane Morris in this article, is one of the most rapidly expanding global criminal businesses of the twenty-first century, with an estimated annual revenue of $150 billion. Although human trafficking may appear to be an impersonal issue, every time we purchase an item created using slave labor, we are complicit in this system. Whether at a Chinese factory, an Indian rubbish dump, or a New York City household, human trafficking refers to the forced labor of unwilling individuals under deplorable conditions for low or no pay. It also refers to those in the sex trade or war who are detained against their will or threatened by violence. False assurances of stable employment are a standard hook used to entice victims. Traffickers routinely threaten survivors and their families if they or their loved ones try to flee after having their passports and money taken.


This is another publication that looks at the economies of human trafficking. The fact that it is a more recent publication makes the author develop methods of trade, nature, and market structure currently in play. The author examines how victims are preyed on and lured into human trafficking and how the hope of a better future has turned noble human beings into human goods to be sold. Apart from that, this source also looks at the barriers created to prevent the victims’ families from setting out to help them keenly, which makes this source even better since its dynamic nature.

  1. Shelley, Louise. Human trafficking: A global perspective. Cambridge University Press, 2010

This book delves into every facet of human trafficking worldwide, exposing the inner workings of the trafficking industry and the personalities of the people who run it. It shows, from a historical and comparative vantage point, that there is more than one business model of human trafficking and that human trafficking varies significantly between geographic locations. The author drew from a mountain of scholarly literature, including real-life prosecutions, a wide range of reports, and extensive fieldwork and interviews.


This source answers the question of how the market is structured. Therefore this source brings to light more about how the market is structured, how people are sold, and how payments are made. In addition, it’s a tremendously unbiased source for the research as it provides more of a geographical heat map of areas or zones where this human trafficking is practiced. Furthermore, it has accurate life statistics and data to back up everything the source portrays.

  1. Weitzer, Ronald. “New directions in research on human trafficking.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (2014): 6-24.

This essay will examine four common assertions about the scope, trajectory, and gravity of human smuggling worldwide compared to other forms of global organized crime. I don’t think the claims can be backed up by proof. Second, the case is made for micro-level studies of trafficking to be carried out with great care. The articles collected here in this issue of The Annals detail several research. Microlevel research provides many advantages over significant, macrolevel assertions, benefits which are both qualitative and quantitative and better adapted to crafting contextualized policy and police responses by pinpointing the size of smuggling within a measurable context.


The writer of this source is very objective and very creative. The writer explains the new trends in human trafficking. How is the market changing, and how is it anticipated to change? This source is significant in the research as it will significantly help explain the methods that can work now and in the future as we try to stop human trafficking.


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