Need a perfect paper? Place your first order and save 5% with this code:   SAVE5NOW

A Review on Globalization and Its Effects


The term “globalization” describes how nations and economies become more integrated through faster trade, finance, information, and people movements across national borders. The study claims that since 1980, globalization has accelerated due to the ease and speed with which international trade and movement have been made possible by technological advancements. Due to increasing rivalry and specialization, multiple researchers contend that while globalization promotes better market efficiency and access to money, technology, and export markets, its benefits may be distributed unfairly. Therefore, policy readiness and international assistance to developing countries are required. An analysis of various research indicates that globalization significantly impacts people’s personal, professional, and political lives. It has resulted in complicated cross-border interdependencies about topics like immigration, healthcare access, communications, commerce, education, and the environment and brought about adjustment difficulties that call for proactive management on a national and international scale, as discussed in the essay.

Beneficial Economic Effects

Through quickening cross-border flows of trade, investment, technology, and financial capital, globalization has had overall favorable economic effects. Worldwide economic integration has accelerated due to important factors like trade and investment liberalization regulations and multinational firms growing their worldwide value chains (Takefman, 2023). This has boosted global GDP growth, increased exports, increased corporate profits, and created jobs in underdeveloped nations through outsourcing manufacturing and services. Gains have been distributed unevenly, too, with developed and sizable rising economies reaping disproportionate benefits over marginalized nations lacking the institutional, physical, and human resources necessary to seize possibilities(Twerefou et al.,2021). While low-skilled occupations are moving abroad and technology increases the productivity of highly skilled labor, rising inequality has also been observed inside countries. However, there have also been decreases in consumer prices, product variety, and productivity boosts from increased competition.

Adverse Economic Repercussions

Globalization stimulates economic growth generally, but it also carries hazards. These include reliance on foreign investment and demand swings, labor and industry outsourcing, susceptibility to inflationary pressures from outside, and financial contagion during downturns. The most significant concentration of advantages has been among urban and business elites who are educated and have global mobility (Takefman, 2023). As market wages increasingly dictate welfare, rural peripheries, and marginalized communities have suffered job losses, undermined social protections, and created livelihood uncertainty. This emphasizes how crucial it is to balance regulation, transparency, and deliberate redistribution for sustainable development.

Social Effects of Globalization

Accelerated migration flows, cultural diffusion through media

Globalization has increased the movement of people, ideas, images, and values across national borders. Due to increased migration, immigrants from various cultures spread throughout the new host societies. In the meantime, mass media and the internet have made fast cross-border dissemination of news, entertainment, and cultural influences possible (Lumen Learning n.d). Debates around cultural appropriation, homogenization, imperialism, intercultural dialogue, and the rise of hybrid global youth cultures have been spurred by the blending of various cultures (Lumen Learning n.d). Global connectivity fosters a cosmopolitan mindset, but it can also propagate countercultures that stray from regional conventions regarding relationships and drug usage, or it can help criminal and terrorist networks expand their reach (Skare Soriano,2021). Maintaining community cohesion around fundamental moral ideals while balancing more freedoms and identity choices is necessary to manage such complicated societal repercussions.

Homogenization versus hybridization of cultures

Both cultural homogenization and hybridization are fueled by globalization. Local cultures are shaped by homogenization, which disseminates a dominating global culture—typically American/Western norms and lifestyles (Hassi & Storti, 2012). Cultural imperialism may arise from this, endangering established identities and values. But as foreign influences meld with persisting native components, heterogeneous combinations also appear, giving rise to creative hybrid cultures that fuse local and global characteristics (Hassi & Storti, 2012). Glocal fusion occurs instead of pure Westernization (Hassi & Storti, 2012). Homogenization overstates the coherence of global culture while underestimating civilizations’ capacity to withstand or domesticate alien cultural imports. Both homogenized and hybridized dimensions are present in most cultures(Pieterse, 2019,p.507). It is crucial to manage this intricate dynamic in a way that maintains community cohesion around fundamental moral ideals while allowing cultural options to grow (Rodrik, 2021).

Rise Of Individualism and Consumerist Values

Globalization has accelerated the cultural transition from collectivism to individualism and the rise of consumerist attitudes. The globalization of Western brands, entertainment, and media, along with the growing participation of developing nations in international trade and finance, has led to an individualistic mindset among the populace, which values material purchases, self-expression, and personal choice over group obligations and loyalty(Effects of economic globalization, n.d). Global companies that offer lifestyle brands have profited from growing individualism and consumerism, but these trends have also undermined community ties and heightened social conflicts, particularly in cases where the new values conflict with established social norms(Malešević, 2019,p.65). More personal freedom is made possible, but maintaining a delicate balance between social obligations and individual rights requires carefully handling this intricate interaction.

Political Effects of Globalization

Globalization has accelerated power transfer from national governments to non-state entities such as NGOs, activist networks, and international companies. These increasingly impact national and international policies and public debate, which limits state sovereignty. Furthermore, emerging global governance organizations such as the WTO help governments communicate rules on everything from commerce to climate change (Juutinen, 2019). Binding agreements bind national governments to actions restricting their ability to make independent policy decisions. Critics contend that, even as regulatory coherence increases internationally, these dynamics unduly prioritize corporate profits over the general welfare of national democracies already dealing with weakening social contracts.

Hannah (2018) states that rethinking governance is necessary to balance national autonomy and international collaboration. Some recommendations include formalizing citizen consultations in trade talks, building legislative barriers against social dumping, and giving activist networks more public-interest responsibilities in global governance (Adler,2021). Globalization has made national policies more worldwide. Hence, it is necessary to innovate governance to enable international coordination and meaningful localized input and consent so that domestic issues stay relevant (Coe et al.,2017). Then, rather than weakening domestic policy autonomy, globalization might strengthen it.

Economic Effects of Globalization

Based on the economic researcher’s perspective, as the global economy has expanded, so too have increased production, consumption, and waste levels due to globalization. Ecosystems and natural resources are under unsustainable strain due to the sheer volume of human economic activity. Global industrialization and rapid economic growth are causes of pollution, habitat destruction, resource depletion, and climate change. The spread of invasive species that endanger native ecosystems is accelerating biodiversity loss as the world grows increasingly interconnected through trade and travel.

Although individual nations might try to reduce environmental harm by enacting domestic rules, more than unilateral action is needed due to the global character of ecological problems. To effectively address environmental externalities, countries must coordinate their international cooperation on issues like climate change and ocean depletion. However, negotiating and enforcing international environmental agreements can be challenging. As the global economy grows, the planet’s health will continue to decline unless effective global environmental regulation is implemented. Reducing the environmental damage caused by globalization is still a pressing issue.

Inadequate Responsibility in International Supply Chains

One of the main environmental issues associated with economic globalization is the absence of responsibility for environmental harm in multinational supply chains and industrial networks. A smartphone, for instance, might be created in the US, have components sourced from Africa, be put together in China using components from South Korea and Japan, and be sold in Europe. This manufacturing process’s distributed and intricate nature makes it challenging to keep an eye on labor practices and environmental regulations at every turn. Abuse, such as inappropriate garbage disposal, illicit mining, and pollution, have been reported in the supply chains of big electronics firms.

Reference List

Takefman, B. (2023) The effects of globalization on economic development.

Lumen Learning (no date) Globalization and Technology | Introduction to Sociology.

Skare, M. and Soriano, D.R., 2021. How globalization is changing digital technology adoption: An international perspective. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge6(4), pp.222-233.

Twerefou, D.K., Danso-Mensah, K. and Bokpin, G.A., 2017. The environmental effects of economic growth and globalization in Sub-Saharan Africa: A panel general method of moments approach. Research in International Business and Finance42, pp.939-949.

Hassi, A. and Storti, G. 2012 ‘Globalization and Culture: The Three H Scenarios,’ in InTech eBooks.

Pieterse, J.N., 2019. Globalisation as hybridisation. In Postmodern Management Theory (pp. 507-530). Routledge.

Malešević, S., 2019. Globalization and nationalist subjectivities. Modern subjectivities in world society: Global structures and local practices, pp.65-83.

Effects of economic globalization (no date).

Juutinen, M., 2019. Emerging powers and new global politics? An Indian perspective on the BRICS paradox. Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal4(6), pp.489-506.

Hannah, E. (2018) ‘Globalization and agency: reclaiming the subject for international human rights law’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 31(2), pp. 177-197.

Coe, N.M., Hess, M., Yeungt, H.W.C., Dicken, P. and Henderson, J., 2017. ‘Globalizing’regional development: a global production networks perspective. In Economy (pp. 199-215). Routledge..

Adler, P., 2021. No Globalization Without Representation: US Activists and World Inequality. University of Pennsylvania Press.,+building

Rodrik, D., 2021. Why does globalization fuel populism? Economics, culture, and the rise of right-wing populism. Annual Review of Economics13, pp.133-170.


Don't have time to write this essay on your own?
Use our essay writing service and save your time. We guarantee high quality, on-time delivery and 100% confidentiality. All our papers are written from scratch according to your instructions and are plagiarism free.
Place an order

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:

Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Copy to clipboard
Need a plagiarism free essay written by an educator?
Order it today

Popular Essay Topics